The 12 Adityas
Ruling Month
Solar Month
Lunar Month
1
Dhata
March - April
Madhu
Chaitra
2
Aryama
April - May
Madhava
Vaishakha
3
Mitra
May - June
Shukra
Jyeshtha
4
Varuna
June - July
Suchi
Ashadha
5
Indra
July - August
Nabhas
Shravana
6
Vivasvan
Aug - Sept
Nabhasya
Bhadrapada
7
Tvashtha
Sept - Oct
Isha
Ashvina
8
Vishnu
Oct - Nov
Urja
Karttika
9
Amshuman
Nov - Dec
Sahas
Margasirsha
10
Bhaga
Dec - Jan
Sahasya
Pushya
11
Pusha
Jan - Feb
Tapas
Magha
12
Parjanja
Feb - March
Tapasya
Phalguna

47-48. While the sages glorify the sun-god with the hymns of the Sama-, Rig- and Yajur Vedas, which reveal his identity, the Gandharvas also sing his praises and the Apsaras dance before his chariot. The Nagas arrange the chariot ropes and the Yaksas harness the horses to the chariot, while the powerful Raksasas push from behind.

49. Facing the chariot, the sixty thousand brahmana sages known as Valakhilyas travel in front and offer prayers to the almighty sun-god with Vedic mantras.

46. Thus, throughout the twelve months, the lord of the sun travels in all directions with his six types of associates, disseminating among the inhabitants of this universe purity of consciousness for both this life and the next.

45. All these personalities are the opulent expansions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, in the form of the sun-god. These deities take away all the sinful reactions of those who remember them each day at dawn and sunset.

The twelve Adityas are nothing but different forms of the Sun-God Surya. In different Puranas their names are given differently. Brahma once recounted to the sages the one hundred and eight sacred names of Surya. The Brahma Purana lists these names and we reproduce them in nine groups of twelve names each.

(1) Surya, Archana, Bhagavana, Tvashta, Pusha, Arka, Savita, Ravi, Gabhastimana, Aja, Kala, Mrityu.
(2) Dhata, Prabhakara, Prithivi, Jala, Teja, Akasha, Vayu, Parayana, Soma, Brihaspati, Shukra, Budha.
(3) Angaraka, Indra, Vivasvana, Diptamshu, Shuchi, Shouri,Shanaishvara, Brahma, Vishu, Rudra, Skanda, Vaishravana.
(4) Yama, Vaidyuta, Jathara, Agni, Aindhana, Tejohapti, Dharmadhvaja, Vedakarta, Vedanga, Vedavahana, Krita, Treta.
(5) Dvapara, Kali, Sarvasurashraya, Kala, Kashtha, Muhurta, Kshapa, Yama, Kshana, Samvatsara, Ashvattha, Kalachakra.
(6) Vibhavasu, Shashvata, Purusha, Yogi, Vyaktavyakta, Sanatana, Kaladhyaksha, Prajadhyaksha, Vishvakarma, Tamonuda, Varuna, Sagara.
(7) Amsha, Jimuta, Jivana, Ariha, Bhutashraya, Bhutapati, Sarvalokanamaskrita, Shrashta, Samvartaka, Vahni, Sarvadi, Alolupa.
(8) Anata, Kapila, Bhanu, Kamada, Sarvotamukha, Jaya, Vishala, Varada, Sarvabhutasevita, Mana, Suparna, Bhutadi.
(9) Shighraga, Pranadharana, Dhanvantari, Dhumaketu, Adideva, Aditinandana, Dvadashatma, Ravi, Daksha, Pita, Mata, Pitamaha.

"All these personalities are the opulent expansions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, in the form of the sun-god. These deities take away all the sinful reactions of those who remember them each day at dawn and sunset." (Srimad Bhagavatam 12.11.45)


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