the essence of Yajurveda
Humans are inspired to translate good thoughts into actions. Yajurveda inspire humans to walk on the path of Karma (deeds) . That is why it is also referred to as Karma-Veda. The essence of the Yajurveda lies in those mantras (incantations) that inspire people to initiate action.
The first incantation of Yajurveda commands us to perform action
DEVO VAHA SAVITA PRAPRAYATU SHRESHTAMAYA KARMANE |
Meaning : O Creator of the universe ! inspire us to perform great deeds. Similarly the second mantra of the fortyth chapter of the Yajurveda commands us to perform deeds -
KURVANNEVEHA KARMANI JIJIVISHECHCHAT SAMAHA|
Meaning : Desire to live for a 100 years performing ones deeds. Alike other Vedas there are many branches of Yajurveda . But 2 branches namely Krishna and Shukla Yajurveda have gained relatively more prominence. There is a beautiful story associated with this Veda.
Rishi Yagyavalkya acquired all knowledge related to Yajurveda from his uncle Vaishampayan. Because of some reason the Guru was angry on his student and told him to return to him the knowledge. The student vomited and returned to him all the knowledge acquired and on the orders of the Guru, the other disciples ate all the knowledge assuming the form of fowls. After this Yajurveda was named as Taitareya Samhita. After this Yagyavalkya worshipped Lord Sun ardently and in return he got the Yajurveda, named Shukla Yajurveda. Because of the impurity of the mind the Mantras (Yajus) became black and thereafter this Yajurveda was named as Krishna Yajurveda.
Alike Rigveda, Shukla Yajurveda is composed in a mantra and is poetic. The words like Yoju or Yajuhu have from -
" Yaja deva Puja Sangatikarna daneshu"
The Yajurveda includes mantras related to, worship of god, vedic rituals related to worship and religious sacrifices. The Yajurveda is classified into 40 parts /chapters consisting of 1975 mantras
The Brahmana textcome next to Vedas. The ultimate aim of these text was to throw light on the methods of conducting Yagya and its related ritual. The Brahmana texts are divided into 3 actions -
(1)Brahmana (2) Aranyaka (3) Upanishads
The Shatpath Brahmana of the Shukla Yajurveda is very famous. It is divided into a 100 chapters and these depict the vedic religious scenario very authentically.
The Aranyaka texts comprise of many a parts extracted from the Upanishads. The 14th "chapter of Shatpath Brahmana is referred to as Aranyaka . The 40th Chapter of the Shukla Yajurveda is referred to as 'Ishavasyopnishada'. The Brihadavanyaka upanished is the Upanishad of Shukla Yajurveda, while Kathopnishad , Taitariya, Shwetashweta Upanishad, Maitrayani. Upanishad and Kaivalyopnishad are th upanishads of Krishna Yajurveda.
(1) DEVOM VAHA SAVITA PRARPAYATU SHRESHTAMAYA KARMANA
-------------( 1/1 Yajurveda)
O Lord, the creator of all, inspire us to perform good deeds. Here we are inspired to indulge in good actions because then only is progress possible. Every person should strive to do such type of deeds so that they are respected and honored for the same. By doing one can attain physical development, mental development, personal development and enhance communal development. One should eat wholesome food and should abstain from the wrong path.
(2) MA HVARMA TE YAGYAPATIRHVARSHEETA |
Do not become wicked ,may your Yagya Pati (One who performed the religious sacrifice) also not become wicked.
It is important to be good and humble to tread on the path of good action. A wicked person is unworthy of every thing he does. Here it is prayed at neither the person who performs the yagya and nor the means used should be wicked and evil respectively. Good work done with bad intentions is always a failure. That is why one should refrain from manipulative tendencies. In the same way the leader should abstain from such evil tendencies because this leads to harm more than good. One and all should therefore practice simple and good living . They should never seek recourse to manipulative tendencies.
(3) SA VISHWAYUHU SA VISWAKARMA SA VISHWA DHAYAHA ||
The 3 Kamdhenus' (things that fulfil all wishes desired) are the life span , the energy to do action and the energy to sustain everything.
Every person who is blessed with long life performs all his duties meticulously and attains all the attainments (Purushastha) In this way he sustains throughout life.
Only by striving with perseverance and focus can one accomplish all his desired goals. With these 3 Kamdhenus humans can progress in all ways. One should not forget that without the energy to sustain no one can perform action and without both these factors one cannot have a long life. One should , therefore utilise these energy's constantly and according to situations.
(4) EDAMAHAMNRUTAT SATYAMUDAIMI |
I am renouncing untruth and embracing truth. One should accept truth, and should sacrifice their life to protect truth. This is known as the Satyapal vrata. O Lord ! I take an oath that I shall always protect truth and may I be successful in observing and accomplishing this vow.
Unless we do not renounce our greed we cannot protect truth. Untruth inhibits self-development and physical, mental and spiritual growth. Therefore we should all adhere by truth.
(5) MA BHERMA SAMVIKTHA
One should not deter, because of fear from the path of ones duties. One should perform all his duties without fear. The doors of progress are always closed for a person who fears. Only a fearless person can initiate self development and can also help in social and political progress. Therefore one should fearlessly perform all his duties.
(6) SAM JYOTISHA JYOTIHI |
May all knowledge come together and become radiant. A teacher gives knowledge to his student and enlightens him. Thereafter students give knowledge to someone else. In this way, one enlightens the other and knowledge increases . Increasing knowledge by knowledge is know as the Jnana Yagya. The ultimate aim of a Yagya is to increase the glory of knowledge.
(7) VEDO ASI YENA TVAM DEV VEDA DEVEBHYO VEDO BHAVASTENA MAHYAM VEDOHO BHOYAHA |
-------------(2/21 , Yajurveda)
The Vedas consists of all knowledge . Just in the way you became the giver of knowledge for the Gods in the same way you bless me with knowledge.
Vedas are an ocean of knowledge. The Gods acquired knowledge through the Vedas and even Human got knowledge from the same source. It is in the best interest of human to study the Vedas to acquire total knowledge.
(8) DEVA GATUVIDO GATUM VITVA GATUMIT |
O Gods ! know the path of truth and tread on the path of truth. Only by acquiring knowledge from the Vedas can one know the path of truth and righteousness, on acquiring knowledge human should tread on the path of truth, so that can do the good of one and all . Truth is unconcealable, that is why we should tread on the righteous path.
(9) ASTHURI NAO GARHAPATYANI SANTU SHATAM HIMAHA |
May we both perform the duties of the family for a 100 years.
Family life can, only then be peaceful and happy if both the husband and wife performs their respective duties consistently for a 100 years without obstacles . A cart having only one buffalo is known as Sthuri and a cart pulled by 2 buffaloes is known as Asthuri, because 2 (husband - wife) pull them. It thus, becomes clear that one can perform their duties better when they are assisted by each other.
(10) TANUPA AGNE ASI TANVAM ME PAHYAYYURDA AGNE AYAYU ME DEHI VARCHODA AGNE ASI VARCHO MEM DEHI |
O Agni ! You are the protector of the body, so protect my body. You are the giver of long life, so give us long life. You are the giver of radiance, so bless us with radiance.
It is said that fire resides in the body, until the fire is there in the body it enkindles the life, when this fire ceases the body does not exist. When the, health is sound one shall have along life . It is because of fire that one grows with radiance. So one should maintain purity of the body , by regularly exercising and purify the mind by worship and self study. As results of this one is blessed with long life and becomes radiant. Therefore we should do all those things that protect the body, life and radiance.
(11) AKRAN KARMA KARMA KRITAHA SAHA VACHA MAYOBHUVA I
The person who is always working and active is always soft spoken all the time.
People who are striving for the attainments always speak softly and sweetly. When we speak in a good way it gives happiness to one and all and they are encouraged to do good to others. When we speak with hatred and anger it leads to unhappiness pain and misery. So one should always be soft spoken and all karma yogis should tread on the path of righteousness so that one can do good to one and all.
(12) NA AETU MANAHA PUNAHA KRATVE DAKSHAYA JEEVAME
JYOK CHA SURYADRISHE
May our mind, actions and strength be inspired all the time to seek the blessings of the sun for a long time.
Humans should always tread on the righteous path so that one can enhance one's strength, can remain healthy and can constantly for a longer duration. One should always seek blessings of the sun so that our vision remains unimpaired for long time. One should also do so that we may get inspired incessantly, just to do good work. One can after all attain perfection only after doing the same work repetitively. Therefore to enhance ones capabilities you should always seek the blessings of the sun god.
(13) TRYAMBAKAM YAJAMAHE SUGANDHIM PUSHTIVARDHANAM
URVARUKAMIVA BANDHANAN MRITYOR MUKSHEEYA MA MRITAT
We pray to lord Mahadev who is fragrant, has 3 eyes and is the nourisher, may he liberate us from death. May our attachments cease alike that of Urvaaru (a specie of cucumber) which ripens and falls of the tree i.e liberates itself from the material objects.
The person who recites this incantation regularly is freed from ailments, fear, and death. Tryimbak means the one with 3 eyes i.e Adhyatma, Adhiboot and Adhidaivik.
We should meticulously pray to lord Shiva so that all our attachments cease alike the fruit of urvaru and we are liberated from this vicious cycle of life and death.
(14) PARMA AGNE DUSHCHARITA DAKSHASVA BHA SUCHARITE BHAJA
O Agni! Liberate us from the wrong doings and actions and inspire us to do good actions.
Please discourage us from doing wrong and encourage us to do good, O Agni! The result of good deeds are always good but the results of bad deeds are very bad. That is why help us to yearn and strive for the good of all so that it may yield good results.
(15) PRATI PANTHAMPADMAHI SWASTISAMANEHASAM
One should always tread of that path which gives us happiness ad where there is no fear of destruction and unhappiness.
We should always walk on that path, which is devoid of obstacles and hurdles. On which we can accomplish our duties properly and easily, and on which we progress.
We seldom go and do those things which we are not knowledge about and even if we have to do it, we take the opinion of experts in the respected fields, so that we may accomplish our duty perfectly, and punctually. Therefore we should follow that path, that leads to happiness and where there is no fear of going astray.
(16) BHAVATAM NAHA SAMNASO SACHET SAVARE PASO
MA YAGYAM HIMSISHTAM MA YAGYAPATIM JATVEDASO SHIVO DHAVATMADYA NAHA
O Agni! Make our mind stable, egalitarian an may you destroy the illusion. Do not destroy the Yagya and may you not destroy the Yagyapati.
We pray to Agni so that he may give us similarity in thought, there is no doubt and illusion. May he not destroy the religious sacrifice offered and also the performer of the religious sacrifice.
(17) YUNJATE MANA UTA YUNJATE DHIYO VIPRA VIPRASYA BRIHATO VIDASHCHITAHA
The scholars make their mind stable and engage in all religious activities with mind/intellect and Yoga by following the great soul who have contemplated acquired a lot of knowledge and have become important.
The commoners can only then become knowledge after they follow the saying and teachings of the scholars. After doing so, only can they engage in good actions and yoga (path) by applying intellect.