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History of Thiruvalluvar Aandu - Tamil New Year Vs English Year

E verybody is celebrating the new year as of January 1st every year. But Indians are odd from this type of celebration. Because we are...


History of Thiruvalluvar Aandu
Everybody is celebrating the new year as of January 1st every year. But Indians are odd from this type of celebration. Because we are holding a lot of people in a different culture, everyone celebrates on a different date. The Tamilan (Thamizhan, தமிழன்), is celebrating the new year on April 14th every year. When you see Tamil calendar you will find two years, i.e one is English year another one is Tamil year. Tamil year is noted as +31 of English year i.e if English year is 2010, Tamil year will be 2010 + 31 = 2041.

Here is why this difference: 
For several years we have followed the tradition to celebrate it on the first of the Tamil month of Chithirai. Now it is claimed by learned people well versed in Tamil and Tamil culture that the day of Thai Pongal (தைப் பொங்கல்) should be the Tamil New Year. They say that the 14th of April is the Hindu New Year. In Sri Lankan calendars it is termed the ‘Hindu Sinhala‘ New Year. Here one should note that it is not termed the ‘Hindu Buddhist‘ New Year. This because in other parts of the world different Buddhists have their own New Year dates.

Thai Festival
According to the existing system, once the sixty years are over with the year called Atchaya, then the next sixty years start with Pirabawa. This makes it mathematically impossible to keep track or record of historical events that happened in the past. Suppose a great leader was born in the year of Atchaya after a lapse of one or two centuries it will not be able to decipher the exact age or period of that event.

In 1921 Tamil scholars who gathered under the leadership of the “Tamil Kadal” (Sea) Maraimalai Adikal researched on the subject of the Tamil New Year.

This committee included Tamil veterans like Tamil Thenral V.Kalyanundaram, Tamil Kavalar K.Subramaniumpillai, Saiva Periyar Satchithananthampillai, Navalar Somasundara Barathiyar, Navalar N.M. Vegkadasami Naddar and Muthamil Kavalar K.A.P. Visvanatham. After long deliberations, they unanimously arrived at the conclusion that the Tamil New Year commenced on the first day of the Tamil month “Thai.” All the twelve months that followed have pure Tamil names.  

They also named the seven days as:
  1. 1) Gnayiru (ஞாயிறு)
  2. 2) Thingal (திங்கள்)
  3. 3) Sevai (செவ்வாய்)
  4. 4) Arivan (அறிவன்)
  5. 5) Viyalan (வியாழன்)
  6. 6) Velli (வெள்ளி)
  7. 7) Kaari (காரி)
Puthan and Sani were not accepted as Tamil words. They also said that Thiruvalluvar was born thirty-one (31). Hence it was decided to add 31 years to the English year and adopt that as the Tamil year called Thiruvalluvar Aandu. The calendars in Tamil Nadu commenced using Thiruvalluvar Aandu in 1971. The state of Tamil Nadu accepted the Thiruvalluvar Aandu officially in 1972.

According to researchers, the Tamils have used the months commencing from Thai to Markali even during the Indus civilization (Sinthu Vaeli Nkareekam). The Gujarathi people, even though they are Hindus, yet their New Year falls on the day of Deepavali. The Marathas have their own. Similarly, people speaking different languages in India celebrate their own separate New Years.

It is a pity that the Tamils both in India and Sri Lanka continue to follow the Hindu New Year as the Tamil New Year.

Tamil years names, Thiruvalluvar years, Kollam and pashali years.

The 60 - year cycle of the Tamil Calendar is followed in Tamil Nadu and all over India as a traditional calendar, with the same name and sequence of years.

Its original reference is to be found in Surya Siddhanta, which Varahamihirar to be the most accurate of the then current theories of astronomy. However, in the Surya Siddhantic list, the first year was Vijaya and not Prabhava as currently used.

After the completion of sixty years, the calendar starts a new with the first year. This corresponds to the Hindu "century."  Based on this Uga (uga starts with child nebula created time and the solar system of the earth)  is calculated.  The Vakya or Tirukannitha Panchangam (the traditional Tamil manual for astronomy) outlines this sequence.

Hindu and Mayan calendars only have a full reference of prabanjam (nebula in English) creation and destroying time. But western science invented last 20 years back only.

The following list represents the current 60 - year cycle of the Tamil calendar year:
Tamil Year
தமிழ் வருடம்
Pashail Year பசலிKollam Year கொல்லம்Thiruvalluvar Year திருவள்ளுவர்Gregorian Year -English
01. Prabhava - பிரபாவ1396-13971162-116320181987 - 1988
02.Vibhava - விபவ1397-13981163-116420191988 - 1989
03.Sukla - சுக்ல1398-13991164-116520201989 - 1990
04.Pramodhoodha - பிரமோதூத 1399-14001165-116620211990 - 1991
05.Prachorpaththi - பிரசோற்பத்தி1400-14011166-116720221991 - 1992
06.Aangirasa-ஆங்கிரச 1401-14021167-116820231992 - 1993
07.Srimukha-ஸ்ரிமுக்ஹா1402-14031168-116920241993 - 1994
08.Bhava-பாவ1403-14041169-117020251994 - 1995
09.Yuva-யுவ1404-14051170-117120261995 - 1996
10.Thaadhu-தாது1405-14061171-117220271996 - 1997
11.Eesvara-ஈஸ்வர1406-14071172-117320281997 - 1998
12.Vehudhanya-வேஹுதான்ய1407-14081173-117420291998 - 1999
13.Pramathi- பிரமாதி1408-14091174-117520301999 - 2000
14.Vikrama-விக்கிரம1409-14101175-117620312000 - 2001
15.Vishu-விஷு1410-14111176-117720322001 - 2002
16.Chitrabaanu-சித்ரபானு1411-14121177-117820332002 - 2003
17.Subaanu-சுபானு1412-14131178-117920342003 - 2004
18.Thaarana-தாரண 1413-14141179-118020352004 - 2005
19.Paarthiba-பார்த்திப1414-14151180-118120362005 - 2006
20.Viya-விய1415-14161181-118220372006 - 2007
21.Sarvajith-சர்வஜித1416-14171182-118320382007 - 2008
22.Sarvadhari-சர்வதாரி1417-14181183-118420392008 - 2009
23.Virodhi-விரோதி1418-14191184-118520402009 - 2010
24.Vikruthi-விக்ருதி1419-14201185-118620412010 - 2011
25.Kara-கர1420-14211186-118720422011 - 2012
26.Nandhana-நந்தன1421-14221187-118820432012 - 2013
27.Vijaya-விஜய1422-14231188-118920442013 - 2014
28.Jaya-ஜெயா1423-14241189-119020452014 - 2015
29.Manmatha-மன்மத142414251190-119120462015 - 2016
30.Dhunmuki-துன்முகி1425-14261191-119220472016 - 2017
31.Hevilambi - ஹேவிளம்பி1426-14271192-119320482017 - 2018
32.Vilambi-விளம்பி 1427-14281193-119420492018 - 2019
33.Vikari-விகாரி1428-14291194-119520502019 - 2020
34.Sarvari-சர்வரி1429-14301195-119620512020 - 2021
35.Plava- பலவா1430-14311196-119720522021 - 2022
36.Subakrith -சுபக்ரித்1431-14321197-119820532022 - 2023
37.Sobakrith -சொபக்ரித1431-14331198-119920542023 - 2024
38.Krodhi -குரோதி143314341199-120020552024 - 2025
39.Visuvaasuva -விசுவாசுவ143414351200-120120562025 - 2026
40.Parabhaava-பரபாவ1435-14361201-120220572026 - 2027
41.Plavanga-பிலவங்க1436-14371202-120320582027 - 2028
42.Keelaka-கீழாக1437-14381203-120420592028 - 2029
43.Saumya-சாம்ய1438-14391204-120520602029 - 2030
44.Sadharana-சாதாரண1439-14401205-120620612030 - 2031
45.Virodhikrithu-விரோதிக்ரித்து1440-14411206-120720622031 - 2032
46.Paridhaabi-பரிதாபி1441-14421207-120820632032 - 2033
47.Pramaadhisa-பிரமாதிச1442-14431208-120920642033 - 2034
48.Aanandha-ஆனந்த1443-14441209-121020652034 - 2035
49.Rakshasa-ராக்ஷச1444-14451210-121120662035 - 2036
50.Nala-நல1445-14461211-121220672036 - 2037
51.Pingala-பிங்கள1446-14471212-121320682037 - 2038
52.Kalayukthi- காளயுக்தி1447-14481213-121420692038 - 2039
53.Siddharthi- சித்தார்த்தி1448-14491214-121520702039 - 2040
54.Raudhri-ராவ்திரி1449-14501215-121620712040 - 2041
55.Thunmathi-துன்மதி1450-14511216-121720722041 - 2042
56.Dhundubhi-துந்துபி1451-14521217-121820732042 - 2043
57.Rudhrodhgaari-ருத்ரோத்காரி1452-14531218-121920742043 - 2044
58.Raktakshi-ரக்டக்ஷி1453-14541219122020752044 - 2045
59.Krodhana-குரோதன1454-14551220-122120762045 - 2046
60.Akshaya- அக்ஷய1455-14561221-122220772046 - 2047



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