THE ESSENCE OF '' SAMVEDA '' - THE HINDU PORTAL - Spiritual heritage Rituals and Practices

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THE ESSENCE OF '' SAMVEDA ''

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It is said in the Chandogya Upanishad that

YA RIK TATSAMA ||
------------------------ (1/3/4)

A compilation of richas(shlokas ) is known as Sama.

RICHI ADHYOODHA SAMA
------------------------ (1/6/1)
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Sama is dependent on the Richas.

VACHAHA RIERASAHA RICHAHA SAMARASAHA | SAMNA UDVITHO RASAHA ||

The beauty of speech lies in the Richas, The beauty of richas lie in the sama and the beauty of the sama lies in the style of pronunciation and singing.

Therefore it is now clear that the knowledge of Sama, itself is Samaveda. The singing of the sama can make the mind stable and can give peace to the vagrant mind. The singing of the Sama begins initially on the high pitch and gradually the pitch is lowered. These sound waves of the sama are capable of giving peace to the mind.

Yogeshwar SriKrishna has stated the importance of Samaveda in the following manner-VEDANAMA SAMAVEDO ASMI meaning " I am samaveda myself, amongst the Vedas."(GEETA 10/22)
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There are 2 parts of the Samaveda 

(i) Purvarchik (2) Uttararchik
In between both of them is 'Mahanamnayarchik which comprises of 10 incantations

There are 4 parts of Purvarchika _ Aagneya, Aendra,Paavmaan and Aasanya.

The number of mantras in each skanda (Part ) are as follows -
NAME
NO.OF MANTRAS
AAGNEYA114
AENDRA352
PAAVMAAN119
AARANYA55
MAHANAMNYARCHIK10
TOTAL650


There are 21 chapters in the Uttararchik which contain 1225 mantras. Cumulatively, there are 1875 mantras in the Samaveda.

On the basis of the style of singing and pronunciation there were once upon a time a thousand branches, but gradually became extinct. Now also we do not come across many that recite the Samagana. Many of them are found in Southern India, especially Mysore. The 3 branches now known as Ranayani,Kauthumi and Jaiminiya.

Many people believe that besides a few mantras, most of the Samaveda mantras are extracted from the Rigveda . It is important to know that the method of pronunciation of Samaveda and Rigveda is evidently different and in this language one alphabet can change the meaning and context of mantra altogether.

After the Vedas come the Brahmanas. Amongst the Samvedic Brahmana texts, Tandava and samavidhana are more famous. Because the Tandava Brahmana consists of 25 chapters it is known as Panchvisha Brahmana. There are many a miraculous stories in this Brahmana, therefore it is also referred to as Adhbhut Brahmana. The other Brahmanas of Samaveda are Arsheya, Vansha and Samhitopnishad Brahmana etc.

The Aranyaka texts consist of extracts from upanishads. The Aranyaka of Samveda comes under the Samasamhita. The Samvedi Brahmans sing the metrical mantras, therefore the name of this Aranyaka text is Chandogya Upanishad. Amongst the Samvedic upanishads, the Chandogya and Kenopinshad are the most famous. The scholars state that Brahmana , Aranyaka and upanishads represent 3 states of life,Grihastha( householders),Vanprastha(going to the forest) and Sanyasa(Total renunciation)

All the mantras of the Samaveda are sung. Those mantras only are recited to invoke the Gods for whom the religious sacrifice is being offered to. The recitation of the Samaveda includes 7 notes. One can therefore aptly find the roots of music embedded here. With respect to the evolution and development of Indian music, the samveda holds special significance. The sama-gana is capable of giving the listener, divine peace.

                                          PART ONE : PURVARCHIK
                                                    "AAGNEYA"

(1) AGNIRVRITRANI JANGHANAD |
------------------------(4, Samveda)

Agni(fire) destroys the enemies (vritras). Agni destroys darkness by creating light. We have five fundamental enemies - pleasure instincts, anger, greed, attachment and ego. The fire of knowledge is capable of destroying these enemies. Ignorance (darkness) can be destroyed by knowledge of self.
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(2) AGNE ! NAHA DRISHE DEVAHA HI ASI |
------------------------(10, SAMAVEDA)

Agni is the God,which leads and guides us. Agni destroys darkness and makes it easier for us to tread on the path towards knowledge. Therefore Agni creates light and leads us towards our goal.
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(3) NAHA RAYIM VANSATE |
------------------------(22, SAMVEDA)

Agni blesses us with wealth. Agni gives us heat and energy so that we can fulfill all our duties. In return it yields good results i.e. wealth. Therefore it is a truth that Agni is the giver of wealth.
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(4) HEY AGNEY ! MRID, MAHAN ASI I
------------------------(23, SAMAVEDA)

O Agni, you are great and are giver of happiness. Agni is useful to us in many a ways. As a result we get happiness. In this way Agni is giver of happiness and therefore is considered noble.
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(5) AGNEY ! VISHPATIHI RAKSHASAHA TAPANAHA |
------------------------(39, Samaveda)

Agni is the protector of the people, is the destroyer of demons. Agni is useful in constructive activities. Agni is not only the protector but is also the destroyer. . The righteous usage of Agni can lead to good fruits but the abuse of Agni shall lead to sheer destruction and ruin.
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(6) HEY AGNEY| SAVITA DEVAHA NA URDHVAHA VAJASYA SANITA |
------------------------(57 Samaveda)

O Agni ! May you become alike the sun and bless us with food grains. O Agni ! Nourish us and help us in all our constructive activities. Protect us and nourish us by creating the necessary food grains.
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(7) AGNIHI SUVIRAYASYA SAUBHAGASYA ISHE |
------------------------(60, SAMAVEDA)

Agni is the master of noble valiance and fortune Agni is the one, which bestows all material happiness, destroys all darkness and is the ultimate source of energy. It is used in human welfare and allied constructive activities. It increases courage and bestows wealth, health and comfort.
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(8) HAVISHA A JUHOT, MARJAYADHWAM |
------------------------(63, Samveda)

Perform the Religious sacrifice with the right means, may it purify everything. During the yagya, ghee, aromatic herbs, shrubs are offered to the fire. As a result the entire atmosphere becomes clean and pollution free. Fire can help in making the atmosphere devoid of pollution. Therefore we should use the right things to purify the atmosphere, during the yagya.
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                                                        AENDRA KANDA

(9) BRAHMADWISHAHA AVAJAHI |
------(194 SAMAVEDA)

Destroy hatred by knowledge. Light is the symbol of knowledge. When a person is filled with enmity and animosity he lacks judgement and fails to do good to others. With the emergence of knowledge all the hatred ceases and the person engages incessantly in good deeds.
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(10) UGRAM VACHAHA APAVADHIHI ||
------(353, SAMAVEDA)

Do not speak harsh words. We should always be soft spoken because people always like people who are soft spoken. No body ever likes a person who speaks harsh words and hurts other. Our words should exhibit our good thoughts.
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(11) AHAHA AHAHA SHUNDHYUHU PARIPADAM |
------(396, Samveda)

Cleanliness can keep one away from ailments and diseases. The people who keep themselves and their surroundings clean seldom fall sick. We should never forget cleanliness is next to Godliness. For proper growth and development, a clean mind and body are of utmost importance
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(12) AVRATAHA NAHA HINOTI |
------(441,Samaveda)

A person who does not fulfill the vows cannot accomplish anything. The person who does not have a firm conviction to accomplish the resolution is definitely a failure. A person who does not strive with mind, heart and body does not ever achieve anything. That is why one should become a karma yogi and work constantly although he may or may not get the benefits. Eventually, hard work undoubtedly gets paid off.
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                                                         PAAVMANA KANDA

(13) VICHARSHANIHI VISHWAHA MRUDAHA ABHYAKRAMIT |
------(488,Samaveda)

The scholar is successful in vanquishing all his enemies. The scholar has a solution for every problem and crisis, may it be disease or an external enemy. Because he is endowed with wit and grit he surmounts all his problems successfully. He controls the fickleness of the mind by reciting mantras and eventually stabilizes the mind. He gives the right advice at the right time to the right people. In this way we should all strive to acquire as much knowledge possible because on attainment of total knowledge we shall be able to find a solution to all our problems.
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(14) SUKRITYA MAHANA ABHYAVARDHAYAHA |
------(507 ,SAMAVEDA)

You become noble because of your good deeds.

By engaging in good deeds he or she becomes famous and gets honour and respect in society. If the good deeds result in the welfare of society then such a person is honoured and is respected, undoubtedly.
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(15) VICHARSHANIHI HITAHA SA CHATETI |
------(508 ,SAMAVEDA)

A scholar becomes a benefactor and gives knowledge. When a scholar is donating knowledge the ultimate aim of his knowledge is welfare of one and all. Because of knowledge, the darkness of ignorance ceases and we tread on the path of progress. We should imbibe all the knowledge and the merits from the scholars and should engage in activities that result in the welfare one and all.
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(16) RATNADHAHA VARYANI DAYATE |
------(528, Samaveda)

A person who wears gems or precious stones becomes wealthy. People who wear precious stones and gems acquire a lot of wealth. During times of crisis, wealth is of utmost importance., Precious stones and gems are worn to improve ones health. We should, therefore always save for contingencies, otherwise we shall have to beg from others.
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(17) MA TE RASASYA MATSAT DWAYAWINAHA |
------(561, Samaveda)

Those people do not dwell in happiness whose deeds and thoughts are not similar. A person who is a hypocrite never lives in happiness. Therefore we should be beware of hypocrisy and try to bridge the gap between thoughts and action i.e. we should perform deeds according to our thoughts.
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(18) ATAPTATTURNA TADAMO ASHNUTE |
------(565, Samaveda)

No one can over achieve anything without perseverance. When a human being engages in action and hard work until he does not achieve his goal, he undergoes metamorphosis and positive change. In this manner he makes himself all the more disciplined, patient and diligent. As a result of his diligence he gets good benefits such as total peace, happiness and Contention.

                                                            ARANYAKA KANDA

(19) YAHA MAM DADATI SA VATA |
The giver of food protects one and all. Donation of food leads to protection of others. That is why it is referred to as the noblest form of donation. By donating food one is blessed with limitless virtues. Similarly scholars who donate and impart knowledge, do so for the welfare of all. By knowledge, one become judicious and engages in earning a livelihood for him. Donation of knowledge enhances knowledge and this is a noble form of donation..
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(20) ANNAM ADANTAM AHAM ANNAM ADMI |
------(594,Samaveda)

He who does not donate food, I (God) destroy his food. We should never store food more than what is required. If we do so the gods consider us selfish and destroy all the food. That is why we should always donate food whenever possible. Similarly if a scholar does not impart education and knowledge, the knowledge automatically stagnates and ceases. Therefore the scholars should donate knowledge time to time. By doing so their ego ceases to exist.
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(21) MAYAVINO MAMIRE ASYA MAYAYA |
------(596,Samaveda)

By imbibing knowledge the greatest of the ignorant can become noble and knowledgeable. By acquiring knowledge the darkness of ignorance is destroyed. As a result the wicked also become compassionate renounce their wickedness, their attachment and become noble. The flame of knowledge leads a person to the path of progress.
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(22) AMRITAYA APYAYAMANAHA DIVI UTTAMANI SHRAVANSI DHISHWA |
------(603,Samaveda)

Attain success and tread on the path of progress to attain liberation. Humans are incessantly engaged in work so that they can liberate themselves from the bondages of material life. All the spiritual knowledge given by the great scholars help us in our endeavors to liberate ourselves. We tread on the path of progress by utilizing the means to attain liberation. This as a result gives us happiness and joy.


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