1: Arjuna’s Dilemma
Dhritarashtra said; O Sanjaya, assembled in Kurukshetra the field of religious activity, what did my war-eager sons and the Pandus do? (1.01)

Sanjaya said: Seeing the battle formation of the Pandus army, King Duryodhana approached his teacher, Drona, and spoke these words: (1.02)

O master, behold this mighty army of the sons of Pandu, arranged in battle formation by your talented disciple, the son of Drupada. (1.03)

There are many heroes and mighty archers equal to Bhima and Arjuna in war such as Yuyudhana and Virata: and the great chariot warrior, Drupada; (1.04)

Dhrishtaketu, Chekitana, and the heroic King of Kashi; Purujit, Kuntibhoja and Saibya the best among men. (1.05)

The valiant Ydhamanyu, the formidable Uttamauja, the son of Subhadraa, and the sons of Drayupadi; all of them are great chariot warriors. (1.06)

Also know, O best among the twice born, the distinguished ones on our side; I name the commanders of my army for your information. (1.07)

Yourself, Bhishma, Karna, and the victorious Kripa; Ashvatthama, Vikarna, and the son of Saumadatti. (1.08)

And many other heroes are ready to lay down their lives for me. They are armed with various weapons, and all are skilled in warfare. (1.09)

Our army is multitudinous, and commanded by Bhishma, but their army, marshalled by Bhima is meagre and therefore easy to conquer. (1.10)

Therefore all of you, occupying your respective positions on all fronts, protect Bhishma by all means. (1.11)

The mighty Bhishma, the elder of the Kuru dynasty, roared as a lion and blew his conch loudly bringing boldness to the heart of Duryodhana. (1.12) 3

After that, conches, kettledrums, cymbals, drums and trumpets were sounded together. The commotion was tremendous. (1.13)4

Then Lord Krishna and Arjuna, seated in a grand chariot yoked with white horses, blew their celestial conches. (1.14)

Krishna blew his conch Panchajanya; Arjuna blew his conch Devadatta; and Bhima, the doer of formidable deeds, blew (his) big conch, Paundra. (1.15)5

The son of Kunti, King Yudhishtira, blew (his conch) Anantavijaya, while Nakula and Sahadeva blew Sughosha and Manipushpaka conches, respectively. (1.16)

The King of Kashi, the mighty archer; Shikhandi 6 the great chariot warrior; Dhrsithadyumna 7, Virata, and the invincible Satyaki; (1.17)

King Drupada, and the sons of Draypadi; the mighty son of Subhadra; all of them blew their respective conches, O lord of the earth!(1.18)

The tumultuous uproar, resounding through earth and sky, tore the hearts of the Kauravas. (1.19)8

Seeing the sons of Dhritaraashtra standing; and the war about to begin; Arjuna, whose banner bore the emblem of Hanumana, took up his bow; and (1.20)

spoke these words to Lord Krishna; O Lord (Achyuta), please stop my chariot between the two armies until I behold those who stand here eager for battle and with whom I must engage in this act of war. (1.21)9

I wish to see those who are willing to serve the evil-minded son of Dhritarashtra by assembling here to fight the battle. (1.22)10

Sanjaya said; O King, Lord Krishna, as requested by Arjuna (Gudakesa)11, placed the best of all the chariots in the midst of the two armies; (1.23)

facing Bhishma, Drona, and all other Kings; and said to Arjuna: Behold these assembled Kurus! (1.24)

There Arjuna saw his uncles, grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, benefactors and comrades. (1.25)

Seeing fathers-in-law, all those kinsmen, and other dear ones standing in the ranks of the two armies, (1.26)

Arjuna, the son of Kunti12, was overcome with great compassion and sorrowfully said: (1:27)

O Krishna13 seeing my kinsmen standing with a desire to fight, (1.28)

my limbs fail and my mouth becomes dry. My body quivers and my hairs stand on end. The bow Gandiva, slips from my hand and my skin burns intensely. (1.29)

My mind whirls, I am unable to stand steady and, O Krishna (Kesava)14, I see bad omens. (1.30)15

Arjuna’s Delusion
I see no use of killing my kinsmen in battle. I desire neither victory nor pleasure nor empire, (1:31)

O Krishna. What is the use of a kingdom, or enjoyment, or even life, O Krishna? (Govinda)16 (1.32)

Because all those, for whom we desire kingdom, enjoyments, and pleasures, are standing here for the battle, giving up their lives and wealth. (1.33)

Teachers, fathers, sons and grandfathers, uncles, maternal uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law, and other relatives. (1.34)

I do not wish to kill them, even they who are also about to kill, even for the sovereignty of the three worlds, let alone for this earthly kingdom, O Krishna (Madhusudana)17. (1.35-6)

O Lord Krishna (Janardana)18, what pleasure shall we find in killing the sons of Dhritaraashtra. How can we be happy after killing our kinsmen, O Krishna (Madhava)? (1.37)

Thought they, blinded by greed, do not see evil in the destruction of the family, or sin in being treacherous to friends. (1.38)

Why shouldn’t we, who clearly see evil in the destruction of the family, not think about turning away from this sin, O Krishna? (Janardana)(1.39)

With the decline of the family, the time-honoured family traditions are destroyed, and immorality prevails due to the destruction of family traditions. (1.40)

And when immorality prevails, O Krishna, the women of the family become corrupted; when women are corrupted, caste mixture arises (1.41)

This brings the family and the slayers of the family to hell, because the spirits of their ancestors are degraded when deprived of ceremonial offerings of rice-ball and water. (1.42)

The everlasting qualities of varna and family traditions of those who destroy their family are ruined by the sinful act of illegitimacy. (1.43)

We have been told, O Krishna, that people whose family traditions are destroyed necessarily dwell in hell for a long time. (1.44)

Alas! We are ready to commit a great sin by perpetrating the slaying of kinsmen because of greed for the pleasures of a kingdom.(1.45)

It would be far better for me if the sons of Dhritarashtra should kill me with their weapons in battle while I am unarmed and unresisting. (1.46)

Sanjaya said: Having said this Arjuna sat down on the seat of the chariot with his mind overwhelmed with sorrow in the battle field and he cast aside his bow and arrow. (1.47)

2: The Inner Doctrine

Spiritual courage

Sanjaya said: Lord Krishna spoke these words to Arjuna whose eyes were tearful and downcast, and who was overwhelmed with compassion and despair. (2.01)

The Lord said: How has the melancholy come to you at this juncture? This is not fit for an Aryan. It is disgraceful, and it does not lead one to heaven, O Arjuna. (2.02)22

Do not yield to cowardice, O Arjuna, because it does not befit you. Shake off this weakness of your heart and wake up, O conqueror of the enemy. (2.03)

Arjuna said: How shall I strike Bhishma and Drona, who are worthy of my worship, with arrows in battle, O Slayer of Madhu? (2.04)23

It would be better, indeed, to eat beggar’s bread in this world than to slay these noble souls, because, by killing them I would enjoy wealth and pleasures stained with their blood. (2.05) 24

Whether we should conquer them or not I do not know, which alternative, to be or to kill, is better for us, nor do we know whether we shall conquer them or they will conquer us. We should not even wish to live after killing the sons of Dhritarashtra who are standing in front of us. (2.06)

My heart is heavy laden with the weakness of pity, and mymind is confused about Dharma. I plead with you to tell me, but clearly, what is better for me. I am Your disciple. Teach me who has taken refuge in You. (2.07) 25

I do not perceive that gaining an unrivalled and prosperous kingdom on this earth, or even lordship over the gods will remove the sorrow that is drying up my senses. (2.08)

Then (Gudakesa) Arjuna said to (Govinda) 26Krishna: I shall not fight, and became silent. (2.09)

O King, Lord Krishna, as if smiling, spoke these words to the despondent Arjuna in the midst of the two armies. (2.10)

The Lord said: You grieve for those who should not be grieved for, but yet you speak words of wisdom. The wise grieve neither for the living nor for the dead.(2.11) 27

There was never a time when I, you, or these kings did not exist: nor shallwe ever cease to exist in the future.(2.12)

As spirit, the indweller in the body, experiences childhood, youth and an old age in the body during this life, similarly does it pass on to another body. The serene are not affected by this. (2.13) 28

The contacts of the senses with sensible objects give rise to the feelings of heat and cold, and pain and pleasure. They are transitory and impermanent. Therefore, learn to endure them, O Arjuna.(2.14) 29

Because the serene person, who is not afflicted by these feelings and is steady in pain and pleasure, becomes fit for immortality, O Arjuna.(2.15)

The unreal has no existence and the real never ceases to exist. The truth of these two is indeed certainly known by the seers of truth. (2.16)30

That which pervades all things, the Spirit, is indestructible. Nothing can destroy That which is above all description. (2.17)

However, the bodies which this eternal, indestructible and unfathomable spirit dwells in, are said to have an end. (2.18)

He who thinks of spirit as slayer and he who thinks of it as being killed are both ignorant.Spirit slays not and neither can It be killed. (2.19) 31

Thespirit is neither born nor does it die at any time, nor will cease to exist. It is unborn, eternal, permanent, and primeval. The spirit is not destroyed when the body is destroyed. (2.20)

O Arjuna, how can a person who know that the spirit is indestructible, eternal, unborn, and imperishable, kill anyone or cause anyone to be killed?(2.21)

Just as a person puts on new garments after discarding the old ones, similarlyspirit acquires new bodies after casting away the old bodies.(2.22)

Weapons do not cut this spirit, fire does not burn it, water does not make it wet, and the wind does not make it dry.(2.23)

This spirit cannot be cut, burned, wetted, or dried up. It is eternal, all pervading, unchanging, immovable, and primeval.(2.24)

The spirit is said to be unmanifest, unthinkable, and unchanging. Knowing this spirit as such you should not grieve.(2.25)

If you think that this body takes birth and dies perpetually, even then, O Arjuna, you should not grieve like this.(2.26)

Because death is certain for the one who is born, and birth is certain for the one who dies. Therefore, you should not mourn over the inevitable.(2.27)

All beings, O Arjuna, are unmanifest before birth and after death. They are manifest between the birth and the death only. What is there to grieve about?(2.28)

Some look upon this spirit as a wonder, another describes it as wonderful, and others hear of it as a marvel. Even after hearing about it no one actually knows it.(2.29)

O Arjuna, the spirit that dwells in the body of all beings is eternally indestructible. Therefore, you should not mourn for any body.(2.30)

Considering also your duty as a warrior you should not waver. Because there is nothing more salutary for a warrior than a righteous war.(2.31)

Only the fortunate warriors, O Arjuna, get such an opportunity for an unsought war that is like an open door to heaven.(2.32)

If you will not fight this righteous war, then you will fail in your duty, lose your reputation, and incur sin.(2.33)

People will talk about your disgrace forever. To the honoured, honour is worse than death.(2.34)

The great warriors will think that you have retreated from the battle out of fear. Those who have greatly esteemed you will lose respect for you.(2.35)

Your enemies will speak many unmentionable words and scorn your ability. What could be more painful than this?(2.36)

You will go to heaven if killed, or you will enjoy the earth if victorious. Therefore, get up with a determination to fight, O Arjuna. (2.37)

Treating pleasure and pain, gain and loss, victory and defeat alike,engage yourself in your duty. By doing your duty this way you will not incur sin.(2.38)

The ideal of Spirit-knowledge (Samkya yoga) has been imparted to you, O Arjuna. Now pay attention to the practice thereof, endowed with which you will free yourself from the bondage of Action.(2.39)

In this no effort is ever lost, and there is no harm in practising it. Even a little practice of this (dharma) discipline protects one from great fear. (2.40)32

Single-minded determination vs Ritual Piety
Those who are single-minded have only one thought (of Spirit-realisation), but the thoughts of the irresolute are endless and many-branched, O Arjuna. (2.41) 33

The unwise who delight in flowery words (ritual chanting and theology without understanding the inner meaning) and the ritualistic aspect of the Scriptures, O Arjuna, and say that nothing else is needed;(2.42)

they prescribe various and specific rites for the attainment of pleasure and power to those who are full of desires, and hold the attainment of heaven as the highest goal of life. Rebirth is the fruit of their actions. (2.43) 34

Single-minded determination35 (of Self- Realisation) is not formed in the minds of those who are attached to pleasure and power; and whose discernment is obscured by such ritualistic activities.(2.44)36

Essence of Yoga
The Scriptures deal with the three states or Gunas of mind. Being conscious of the reality of the self, you transcend the three Gunas, O Arjuna.Be free from dualities, be ever balanced and remain unconcerned with the thoughts of acquisition and preservation. (2.45)37

To the enlightened all Scripture are as useful as a tank of water when there is a flood everywhere (2.46)

You must seek and perform your respective duty only , but you have no control or claim over the results. The fruits of work should not be your motive.You should never be inactive. (2.47)38

Do your duty to the best of your ability, O Arjuna, with your mind attached to the Lord,abandoning attachment to the results, and remaining calm in both success and failure.The equanimity of mind is called yoga.(2.48)

Work done with selfish motives is inferior by far to the selfless service or Karma-yoga. Therefore take refuge in the evenness of mind, O Arjuna. Those who seek the fruits of their work are verily unhappy people.(2.49)

One fixed in equanimity of mind gets freedom from both vice and virtue in this life itself. Therefore, strive for yoga. Working to the best of ones ability (without getting attached to the fruits of work) is called yoga.(2.50) 39

Wise yogis, possessed with mental poise by renouncing the attachment to the fruits of work, are indeed freed from thebondage of rebirth and attain the blissful divine state.(2.51)

When your intellect transcends the veil of delusion, then you will become indifferent to what has been heard and what is to be heard (from the Scriptures).(2.52)40

When your intellect, that has been tossed about by the conflicting opinions, has become steady and firmly fixed in equilibrium, then you shall attain yoga.(2.53)

Arjuna said: O Krishna, what is the mark of a person steadfast in Wisdom,filled with ecstasy? How does a person steady in Wisdom speak. How does such a person sit and walk?(2.54) 41

The Lord said: when one is completely free from all desires of the mind and is satisfied in spirit by the (ecstasy of) Spirit, then one is called a person stable in Wisdom, O Arjuna.(2.55) 42

A person whose mind is un-perturbed by adversity, who does not crave happiness, and who is free from fondness, fear, and anger; such a person is called a sage of constant Wisdom.(2.56) 43

Those who are not attached to anything, who are neither elated by getting the good, or troubled by coming by evil, they are said to be poised in Wisdom.(2.57)44

When one can completely withdraw (or restrain) the senses from the sense objects as a tortoise withdraws its limbs (into the shell), then the Wisdom-flow (Prajna) of such a person is considered steady.45(2.58)

Thedesire for sensual pleasures fades away if one abstains from sense enjoyment, but the craving (for sense enjoyment) remains. The craving also disappears from the one who has seen (or intuits) the Supreme.(2.59) 46

Restless senses, O Arjuna, forcibly carry away the mind of even a wise person striving for perfection.(2.60)

Having brought the senses (desires) under control, one should fix one’s mind on the Spirit. One’s flow of Wisdom becomes steady whose senses are under control.(2.61)

One develops attachment to sense objects by thinking about sense objects. Desire for sense objects comes from attachment to sense objects, andanger comes from unfulfilled desires and expectancy.(2.62)

From anger arises delusion; from delusion come confused memory. By this confusion reasoning is destroyed; which is the cause of the fall of the devotee. (2.63) 47

A disciplined yogi, enjoying sense objects with senses that are under control and free from likes and dislikes, gains in tranquillity.(2.64) 48

All sorrows are destroyed upon attainment of tranquillity. The intellect of such a tranquil-minded person soon becomesanchored in equilibrium (2.65)

There is neither Spiritual knowledge or meditation in those whose mind are fickle. Without Spiritual knowledge there is no peace; and without peace there can be no happiness. (2.66)

The mind, when controlled by theraving senses, pushes away the flow of Wisdom as a storm pushes a boat on the sea away from its destination, the spiritual shore.(2.67) 49

Therefore, O Arjuna, one’s flow of Wisdom becomes steady whose senses are completely withdrawn from the objects.(2.68)

A yogi is aware of that (the spirit) about which others are unaware. A sage who is spiritually aware is not in touch with how others experience their self-deluded version of reality.(2.69).

One attains peace in whose mind all desires enter without creating any disturbance, as river waters enter the ocean without creating an imbalance.One who desires material objects is never peaceful.(2.70)

On who abandons all desires and becomes free from longing and the feeling of ‘I’ and ‘my’ attains peace.(2.71) 50

O Arjuna, this is the super-conscious state. Attaining this, one is no longer deluded. Gaining this state even at the end of one’s life, a person attains oneness with the Supreme.(2.72)

3: The Secret of Work

Jnana Yoga and Cause & effect Yoga go hand in hand

Arjuna said: If You consider that transcendental knowledge is better than work then why do You want me to engage in this horrible action, O Krishna? (3.01)

You seem to confuse my mind by apparently conflicting words. Tell me, decisively, one thing by which I may attain the Supreme.(3.02) 51

The Lord said: In this world, O Arjuna, the twofold path was given by me in the beginning. The path of Spirit-knowledge (or Jnana Yoga) for the contemplative, and the path ofunselfish work (or Action-yoga) for the active. (3.03)52

Human beings do not achieve the state of non-action simply by abstaining from action; and neither do they rise to perfection simply by renouncing all things. (3.04)

No one can remain inactive because the human state, being part of Nature, is driven to action. (3.05)

Thehypocrite is a deluded man who sits controlling the organs of action, but wandering in his mind on the objects of the senses. (3.06)

The one who excels, O Arjuna, is the one who restrains the mind from slavery by the senses, remains unattached, and directs the organs of action to work which advances on the Way. (3.07)

Perform yourobligatory duty (dharma), because action is indeed better than inaction. Even the maintenance of your body would not be possible by inaction.(3.08)

Service, the Milch-cow of the universe
Human beings are bound up by actions (or works) other than those done as Service. Therefore, O Arjuna, do your duty efficiently as a service to Me, free from attachment to the fruits of work. (3.09)53

Having created humankind in the beginning, the Creator said: By this (Service) you shall prosper and Service shall fulfil all your desires. (3.10)

Nourish the Energies with Service, and the Energies will nourish you. Thus nourishing one another you shall attain the Supreme goal. (3.11)54

The Energies, nourished by Service, will give you the desired objects. One who enjoys the gift of the Energies without offering them (anything in return) is, indeed, a thief. (3.12)55

The righteous who eat the remnants of Service are freed from all sins, butthe impious who cook food only for themselves (without sharing with others in charity) verily eat sin.(3.13) 56

The living beings are born from food, food is produced by rain, rain comes by performing Service. The Service is performed by doing Cause & effect.(3.14) 57

Karma is prescribed in the Scriptures. The Scriptures come from God. Thus the all pervading God is ever centred in Service.(3.15)

The one who does not help to keep the wheel of creation in motion by sacrificial duty, and who rejoices in sense pleasures only, that sinful person lives in vain, O Arjuna.(3.16)

The one who rejoices in the Self/Spirit only, who is satisfied with the Spirit, who is content in the Spirit alone, for such a (Spirit-realized) person there is no obligatory duty. (3.17)58

For such a person in this world there is no-thing to acquire by performing an action; and there is no loss by not performing an action; and such a person does not have to depend on any body for any thing. (3.18)

Therefore, constantly perform your obligatory duties without attachment to the results; for by doing duty without attachment human beings obtain the Supreme. (3.19) 59

King Janaka and others attained perfection (or Spirit/Spirit-realisation) byKarma-yoga alone. You should perform your duty (with the apathetic frame of mind) with a view to guide people and for the universal welfare.(3.20) 60

Because, whatever great people do, other follow. Whatever example they set up, the world follows. (3.21)

O Arjuna, there is nothing in the three worlds (earth, heaven, and the upper regions) that should be done by Me, nor is there anything un-obtained that I should obtain, yet I engage in action.(3.22)

Because, if I do not engage in action relentlessly, O Arjuna, people would follow My path in every way.(3.23) 61

These worlds would perish if I do not work, and it shall be the cause of confusion of species and matter and destruction of all the people.(3.24)

As the ignorant work, O Arjuna, with attachment (to the fruits of work), so the wise should work without attachment, for the welfare of society.(3.25)

The wise should not unsettle the mind of the ignorant who is attached to the fruits of work, but the enlightened one should inspire others by performing all work efficiently without attachment. (3.26) 62

Annihilating the ego
All works are being done by the Gunas (or the energy and power) of Nature, but due to delusion of ego people assume themselves to be the doer. (3.27)

The one who knows the truth, O Arjuna, about the role of Gunas and action does not get attached to the work, knowing that it is the Gunas that work with their instruments, the organs of human beings.(3.28)

Those who are deluded by the Gunas of nature get attached to the functions of the Gunas.The wise should not disturb the mind of the ignorant whose knowledge is imperfect. (3.29)63

Dedicating all actions to Me, with your thoughts resting on the Spirit, free from desire, attachment, and mental grief, engage in battle. (3.30)

Those who always abide in this teaching of Mine, with faith and free from fuss, are freed from the bondage of Cause & Effect. (3.31)

But, those who criticize My teaching and do not practice it, consider them as ignorant of all knowledge, senseless, and ruined. (3.32)

All beings follow their nature. Even the wise act according to their own nature. What, then, is the value of sense restraint?(3.33) 64

Attachments and aversions of the senses for objects are natural. One should however not come under the control of these dualities, because they are two stumbling blocks, indeed, on one’s path of Spirit- realization. (3.34)

One’s own obligatory duty, even if performed inferior, is better than well performed obligatory duty but of another person. Death in carrying out one’s natural work is useful. Unnatural work produces fear. (3.35)65

About sin
Arjuna said: O Krishna, what impels one to commit sin as if unwillingly and forced against one’s will? (3.36) 66

The Lord said: It is passion and desire and anger born of vulgar nature. Desire is insatiable and is a great devil. Know this as the enemy. (3.37)

Passionate desire for all sensual and material pleasures, becomes anger when unfulfilled. As the fire is covered by smoke, as a mirror by dust, and as an embryo by the amnion, similarly the Spirit-knowledge gets obscured by Desire. (3.38)

O Arjuna, Wisdom gets covered by this insatiable fire of Desire, the eternal enemy of the wise. (3.39)

The senses, the mind, and the intellect are said to be the seat of Desire. Desire, with the help of the senses, deludes a person by veiling Wisdom. (3.40)

Therefore, O Arjuna, by controlling the senses kill this devil (of material desire) that destroys knowledge and discrimination. (3.41)

The senses are said to be superior to the body, the mind is superior to the senses, the intellect is superior to the mind, and spirit is superior to the intellect. (3.42)

Thus, knowing the spirit to be superior to the intellect, and controlling the mind by the intellect (that is purified by Wisdom), one must kill this mighty enemy of Desire, O Arjuna. (3.43) 67

4: Way of Renunciation with Knowledge
The Lord said: I taught this imperishable science of right action, or Karma-yoga to King Vivasvan. Vivasvan taught it to Manu. Manu taught it to Ikshavaku. (4.01)68

Thus handed down in succession the royal sages knew this Karma-yoga. After a long time the science of this yoga was lost from this earth. (4.02)

Today I have described the same ancient science to you, because you are my sincere devotee and friend. This yoga is a supreme mystery indeed. (4.03)

Arjuna said: But You were born later, Vivasvan was born in ancient time. How am I to understand that You taught this yoga in the beginning? (4.04) 69

The Lord said: Both you and I have taken many births. I remember them all, O Arjuna, but you do not remember. (4.05)

Though I am eternal, imperishable, and the Lord of all beings; yet I voluntarily manifest by controlling My own material nature using My Yoga-Illusion.(4.06)70

Whenever there is a decline of Dharma and the rise of Adharma, O Arjuna; (4.07)

then I manifest Myself. I incarnate from time to time for protecting the good, for transforming the wicked, and for establishing Dharma, the world order. (4.08)71

The one who truly understands My transcendental birth and activities (of creation, maintenance, and dissolution), is not born again after leaving this body and attains My abode, O Arjuna. (4.09)

Freed from attachment, fear, and anger; fully absorbed in Me, taking refuge in Me, and purified by the fire of Spirit-knowledge, many have entered into my Being. (4.1 0) 72

With whatever motive people identify with Me, I reward them (or fulfill their desires) accordingly. People approach Me with different paths. (4.11)

Those who long for success in their work here (on earth) worship the gods. Success in work comes quickly in this human world. (4.12)

The four Varna or divisions of human society, based on aptitude and vocation, which is a different distribution of Gunas and karma, were created by God. Though God be the author of this system, one should know that God remains actionless and am eternal. (4.13)73

Works do not bind Me, because I have no desire for the fruits of work. The one who understands this truth is (also) not bound by Cause & effect. (4.14)

The ancient seekers of liberation also performed their duties with this understanding. Therefore, you should do your duty as the ancients did. (4.15)

Even the wise are confused about what is action and what is inaction. Therefore, I shall clearly explain what is action, knowing that one shall be liberated from the evil (of birth and death). (4.16)

The true nature of action is very difficult to understand. Therefore, one should know the nature of attached action, the nature of detached action, and also the nature of forbidden action. (4.17)

Attached action is selfish work that produces Karmic bondage, detached action is unselfish work that leads to Wisdom, and forbidden action is harmful to society. The one who sees inaction in action, and action in inaction, is a wise person. Such a person is a yogi and has accomplished everything. (4.18)74

A person whose works are all free from selfish desires and motives, and whose Cause & effect is all burned up in the fire of Spirit-knowledge, is called a sage by the wise. (4.19)

Having abandoned attachment to the fruits of work, ever content, and dependent on no thing; though engaged in activity, one does nothing at all (and incurs no Karmic reaction) because the mind is desireless in this execution of duty. (4.20)

Free from desires, mind and senses under control, renouncing all proprietorship, doing mere bodily action one does not incur sin (or Karmic reaction). (4.21) 75

Content with whatever gain comes naturally by His will, unaffected by dualities, free from envy, equanimous in success and failure; though engaged in work such a person is not bound (by Cause & effect). (4.22)

Those who are devoid of attachment, whose mind is fixed in knowledge, who does work as a server of God (deacon), all Cause & effect of such liberated persons dissolves away. (4.23)

God is the sacrifice. God is the clarified oil. The oblation is poured by God into the fire of God. God shall be realized by the one who considers everything as (a manifestation or) an act of God. (4.24)76

Some yogis perform the Service of worship to gods alone, while others offer themselves as offering in the fire of God by performing the Service of Spirit-knowledge. (4.25) 77

Some offer their hearing and other senses as sacrifice in the fires of restraint, others offer sound and other objects of the senses (as sacrifice) in the fires of the senses. (4.26)

Others offer all the functions of the senses, and the functions of Prana energy as sacrifice in the fire of the yoga of self-restraint that is kindled by knowledge. (4.27) 78

Others offer their wealth, their humility, and their practise of yoga as sacrifice, while the ascetics with strict vows offer their study of scriptures and knowledge as sacrifice. (4.28) 79

Those who are engaged in yogic practice, reach thebreathless state by offering inhalation into exhalation and exhalation into inhalation as sacrifice. (4.29)80

Others restrict their diet and offer their inhalations as sacrifice into their inhalations. All these are the knowers of Service.(4.30)

Those who drink of the nectar produced by Service go to God Eternal. This world is not for the non-sacrificer how can the other world be. (4.31)81

Thus many types of sacrifice are described in the Scriptures. Know them all to be born from karma, the action of body, mind, and senses. Knowing this, you shall be liberated. (4.32)82

Knowledge is supreme
Knowledge-sacrifice is superior to any material sacrifice, O Arjuna. Because, all actions in their entirety culminate in knowledge. (4.33)

Acquire this transcendental knowledge by humble reverence, by sincere inquiry, Yajna service and byservice to a teacher. The wise who have realized the truth will teach you. (4.34) 83

Knowing that, O Arjuna, you shall not again get deluded like this. By this knowledge you shall behold the entire creation in your own self and in Me. (4.35)84

Even if one is the most sinful of all sinners, yet one shall cross over the ocean of sin by the raft of knowledge alone. (4.36) 85

As the blazing fire reduces fuel to ashes, similarly, the fire of Spirit-knowledge reduces all karma to ashes, O Arjuna. (4.37) 86

Verily there is no purifier in this world like knowledge. One who becomes purified by yoga discovers this knowledge within (naturally) in course of time. (4.38)87

The one who has faith, and is devoted, and has mastery over the senses, gains this knowledge. Having gained this, one at once attains the supreme peace. (4.39)

But the ignorant, who has no faith and is full of doubt (about the Spirit), perishes. There is neither this world nor the world beyond nor happiness for the one who doubts. (4.40)

With work absolved in yoga, and doubt completely destroyed by knowledge, one who is Spirit-realized, O Arjuna, is not bound by actions. (4.41)

Therefore, be established in yoga and cut the ignorance-born doubt abiding in your heart by the sword of Spirit-knowledge, and get up to fight, O Arjuna. (4.42) 88

5: Yoga of Renunciation
Arjuna said: O Krishna, You praise renunciation of action and also performance of unattached action. Tell me, definitely, which one is better of the two. (5.01)89

The Lord said: Renunciation of action and performance of action (free from attachment) both lead to freedom; of the two, performance of action is superior to renunciation of action. (5.02)

A person should be considered a true Sanyasin (or renunciant) who neither likes nor dislikes; free from the opposites. Becausefree from dualities O Arjuna, one is easily liberated from bondage. (5.03)

The ignorant, not the wise consider knowledge and performance of action as different from each other. The person who has truly mastered one, gets the benefits of both. (5.04)

Whatever goal the one yogi reaches, the other also reaches the same goal. One who sees the path of renunciation and the path of work as the same, really sees. (5.05)90

But renouncing action, O Arjuna, is difficult to attain without karma-yoga. A karma-yogi sage quickly attains God. (5.06)

A karma-yogi whose mind is pure, whose mind and senses are under control, and who sees one and the same Spirit in all beings, is not bound (by Cause & effect) though engaged in work. (5.07)

A renunciant of actions who knows the truth thinks, ‘I do no smelling, eating, walking, sleeping, breathing; and (5.08)

speaking, giving, taking, opening and dosing the eyes, such a one believes that only the senses are operating upon their sense objects. (5.09)91

One who does all work as an offering to the Lord, abandoning attachment to the results, is as untouched by sin (or karmic reaction) as a lotus leaf is untouched by water. (5.10)

A yogi performs action by body, mind, intellect, and senses, without attachment (or ego), only for self-purification. (5.11) 92

Abandoning the fruit of work, a yogi attains peace born in steadfastness; while others, who are attached to the fruits of work, become bound by selfish work. (5.12)

A person who has subdued the senses and completely renounced (the fruits of) all works, dwells happily in the City of Nine Gates, neither performing nor directing action. (5.13) 93

The Supreme One neither creates the urge for action nor the feeling of doership nor the attachment to the results of action in people. All these are done by the (Gunas of) nature. (5.14)

God does not take note of good or evil deeds of anybody. The knowledge is covered by (the veil of) ignorance, thereby people are deluded. (5.15)94

But their knowledge, whose ignorance is destroyed by the Spirit-knowledge, reveals the Supreme like the sun. (5.16)

They, whose mind and intellect are absorbed in the Spirit, who remain firmly attached with the Spirit, who have Spirit as their supreme goal, whose sins (or impurities) have been destroyed by the knowledge, do not take birth again (5.17)

An enlightened person looks at a learned and humble Brahmana, an outcast, even a cow, an elephant, or a dog with an equal eye. (5.18) 95

Everything has been accomplished in this very life by those whose mind is set in equality. Such a person has realized God within because God flawless and impartial. (5.19)96

One who neither rejoices on obtaining what is pleasant nor grieves on obtaining the unpleasant, who is undeluded, who has a steady mind, and who is a knower of God; such a person abides in God. (5.20)

A person whosemind is unattached to sensual pleasures, who discovers the joy of the Spirit, and whose mind is in union with God through meditation, enjoys eternal bliss. (5.21)

Pleasures derived from the contact of senses with their objects (or the sensual pleasures) are verily the source of misery, and have a beginning and an end. The wise, O Arjuna, do not rejoice in sensual pleasures.(5.22)97

One who is able towithstand the impulse of lust and anger before death is a yogi, and a happy person. (5.23) 98

One who finds happiness within in the Spirit, who rejoices within, and who is illuminated by the Spirit-knowledge; such a yogi becomes one with God and attains divine beatitudes.(5.24)

Seers whose sins (or imperfections) are destroyed, whose doubts (dualities) have been dispelled by knowledge, whose disciplined minds are attached with the Spirit, and who are engaged in the welfare of all beings attain God. (5.25)

A Spirit-realized person who is free from lust and anger, and who has subdued the mind and senses easily attains divine beatitudes.(15.26)

Renouncing sense enjoyments; fixing the eyes and mind at the midbrows;equalizing the breath moving through the nostrils;(5.27)

with senses, mind, and intellect under control; having liberation as the prime goal; free from lust, anger, and fear; such a sage is verily liberated. (5.28)

The one who knows Me as the Lord of Yanjas and ascetism, as the great Lord of all the worlds and as the friend of all beings, attains peace.(5.29)

6: Yoga of Meditation
The Lord said. One who performs the prescribed duty without seeing its fruit is a Sanyasi and a yogi, not the one who merely does not light the sacred fire, and does not work. (6.01) 102

O Arjuna, know that to be yoga which they call Sanyasa. No one becomes a yogi who has not renounced the selfish motive behind an action.(6.02)103

For the wise who seeks to attain yoga (of meditation or the equanimity of mind), Karma-yoga is said to be the way; for the one who has attained yoga, the equanimity which is gained becomes the Way. (6.03)

A person is said to have attained yogic perfection when there is no desire for sensual pleasures or attachment to the fruits of work, and has renounced all personal selfish motives. (6.04)

One must elevate, not degrade oneself by one’s own  soul. The soul alone is one’s friend as well as one’s enemy. (6.05) 104

The soul is the friend of those who have control over it, and the soul acts like an enemy for those who do not control it.(6.06)

One who has control over the soul is tranquil in heat and cold, in pleasure and pain, and in honour and dishonour; and is ever steadfast with the Supreme Spirit. (6.07)

A yogi is called Spirit-realized who is satisfied with knowledge and understanding of the Spirit, who is equanimous, who has control over the senses (including mind as 6th sense), and to whom a clod, a stone, and gold are the same. (6.08)

A person is considered superior who is impartial towards companions, friends, enemies, neutrals, arbiters, haters, relatives, saints, and sinners. (6.09)105

Meditation instruction
Let the yogi - seated in solitude and alone - having mind and senses under control and free from desires and attachments for possessions, try constantly to contemplate on the Supreme Spirit. (6.10) 106

The yogi should sit on a firm seat that is neither too high nor too low, covered with kusha grass, a deerskin, and a cloth, one over the other, in a clean spot. (6.11) 107

Sitting (in a comfortable position) and concentrating the mind on a single object, controlling the thought and the activities of the senses,let the yogi practice meditation for self-purification.(6.12)

Hold the waist, spine, chest, neck, and head erect, motionless and steady, fix the eyes and the mind steadily at the tip of the nose, and do not look around.(6.13)108

With serene and fearless mind; practising celibacy; having the mind under control and thinking of Me; let the yogi sit and have Me as the supreme goal. (6.14) 109

Thus, by always keeping the mind fixed on the Spirit, the yogi whose mind is subdued attains peace of the divine ecstasy by uniting with Me. (6.15)

This yoga is not possible, O Arjuna, for the one who eats too much, or who does not eat at all; who sleeps too much, or who keeps awake. (6.16)

But for the one who is moderate in eating, recreation, working, sleeping, and waking, this yoga (of meditation) destroys (all) sorrow. (6.17)

A person is said to have achieved yoga, the union with the Spirit, when the disciplined mind gets freedom from all desires, and becomes absorbed in the Spirit alone. (6.18)

’As a Lamp in a windless place does not flicker’ - this simile is used for the subdued mind of a yogi practising meditation on God. (6.19)

When the mind disciplined by the practice of meditation becomes steady,one becomes content in the spirit by beholding the Spirit with (purified) intellect. (6.20) 110

One feels infinite bliss that is perceivable only through the intellect, and is beyond the reach of the senses. After realizing God, one is never separated from absolute reality. (6.21)

After Spirit-realisation, one does not regard any other gain superior to Spirit-realisation. Established in Spirit-realisation, one is not moved even by the greatest calamity. (6.22) 111

The cutting off of sorrow and unhappiness is known by the name of yoga. This yoga should be practised with firm determination and perseverance, without any mental reservation or doubts. (6.23)

Totally abandoning all selfish desires, and completely restraining the senses by the intellect; (6.24)

one attains tranquillity of mind by gradually bringing the mind back ever time it wanders; fully absorbed in the Spirit by means of a well-trained (heart) intellect, and thinking of nothing else. (6.25)

By whatever cause the restless and unsteady mind wanders away, one should (gently) bring it back to the Lord, the reflection of God. (6.26) 112

Supreme bliss comes to a Spirit-realized yogi whose mind is tranquil, whose desires are under control, and who is free from sin (6.27) 113

Such a sinless yogi, who constantly engages the mind with the Spirit, easily enjoys the infinite bliss of contact with God.(6.28)

Because of perceiving the Spirit abiding in all beings, and all beings abiding in the Spirit; a yogi, who is in union with the Spirit, sees every being with an equal eye. (6.29)114

Those who see Me in everything and see everything in Me, are not separated from Me and I am not separated from them.(6.30) 115

They who see all as one, who adore Me as abiding in all beings, abide in Me irrespective of their mode of living. (6.31) 116

One is considered the best yogi who regards every being like oneself, and who judges pain and pleasures of others by the same standard as applied to one-self, O Arjuna. (6.32) 117

Arjuna is concerned about losing out on the pleasures of both worlds
Arjuna said: O Krishna, You have said that yoga is characterized by equanimity, but because of the restlessness of mind I do not see how the steady state of mind can be achieved. (6.33)

Because the mind, indeed, is very unsteady, turbulent, powerful, and obstinate, O Krishna. I think restraining the mind is as difficult as restraining the wind. (6.34)

The Lord said: Undoubtedly so, O Arjuna, the mind is restless and difficult to restrain, but it is subdued by two ways, perseverance in spiritual discipline, and detachment from this world, O Arjuna. (6.35)

I do concede,yoga is difficult for the one who cannot control the mind. However, yoga is attainable by the person who has disciplined the mind and strives by proper means (6.36)

Arjuna said: For the faithful one who has not yet subdued the mind, and who deviates from yoga - what is the destination of such a person, O Krishna? (6.37)

Do they not perish like a disintegrating cloud, O Krishna, having lost both yoga which bring heavenly pleasures and having renounced worldly pleasures, being bewildered on the Way? (6.38) 118

O Krishna, do take this doubt from me. Because there is none, other than You, who can dispel this doubt. (6.39)119

The Lord said: There is no destruction, O Arjuna, for such a yogi either here or hereafter. The doer of good is not put to grief, My son. (6.40)

The unsuccessful yogi is reborn, after attaining heaven and living there for many years, in the house of the pure and prosperous; or (6.41)

such a yogi is born in a family of wise yogis. A birth like this is very difficult, indeed, to obtain in this world.(6.42)

After taking such a birth, O Arjuna, one regains the knowledge acquired in the previous life, and strives again to achieve perfection. (6.43) 120

The unsuccessful yogi is instinctively carried towards God by virtue of yogic practices of previous lives. Even the one who merely inquires about God through a little yoga, surpasses those who perform religious rituals without understanding. (6.44) 121

The yogi who diligently strives, perfecting (gradually) through many incarnations, becomes completely free from all sins (or imperfections) and reaches the supreme goal (of Spirit-realisation). (6.45)

The yogi is superior to the ascetics. The yogi is superior to the theologians. The yogi is superior to the ritualists. Therefore, O Arjuna, be a yogi. (6.46)

I consider one to be the most devoted of all the yogis, who lovingly contemplates on Me with supreme faith, and who’s mind is ever absorbed in Me. (6 47)122

7: Yoga of Spiritual Discernment
The Lord said: O Arjuna, listen how you shall know Me completely without any doubt, with your mind clinging to Me, taking refuge in Me, and performing yogi practices.(7.01)

I shall fully explain to you the art of Spirit-knowledge together with Spirit-realisation. After knowing this nothing more remains to be known in this world. (7.02)

Scarcely one out of thousands of persons strives for perfection of Spirit-realisation. Scarcely any one of those striving, or even the perfected persons, truly knows Me. (7.03)

Mind, intellect, ego, ether, air, fire, water, and earth are the eightfold transformation of My Creative Energy.(7.04)123

This Creative Energy is My lower energy. My other higher energy is the Uncreate Energy by which this entire universe is sustained, O Arjuna.(7.05)124

Know that all creatures have evolved from this twofold energy, and God is the origin as well as the dissolution of the entire universe. (7.06)125

O Arjuna, there is nothing higher than God. Everything in the universe is strung on God like jewels on the thread of a necklace. (7.07)

O Arjuna, being one with God I am the sapidity in the water, I am the radiance in the sun and the moon, the sacred syllable Om in all the Scriptures, the sound in the ether, and the essence in human beings. (7.08)

I am the sweet fragrance in the earth. I am the brilliance in the fire, the life in all living beings, and the humility in the ascetics. (7.09)

O Arjuna, know Me to be the eternal seed of all creatures. I am the intelligence of the intelligent, and the splendour of the splendid. (7.10)126

I am the strength of the strong, that is devoid of lust and attachment. I am the lust (or Desire) in human-beings that is in accord with Dharma, O Arjuna. (7.11) 127

Know that the three Gunas; Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas, also emanate from Me. I am not in (or dependent on) the Gunas, but the Gunas are in (or dependent on) Me . (7.12)128

Illusion of the three Gunas
Human beings are deluded by these, the threefold dispositions of Creative Energy - Gunas of nature; therefore, they do not know Me who is above these Gunas and eternal. (7.13)

My divine Illusion consisting of three Gunas is difficult to overcome. Only they who surrender unto Me, and take refuge in me alone, cross over this Illusion. (7.14)129

The evil doers, the ignorant, the lowest persons who are attached to demoniacal nature, and whose intellect has been taken away by Illusion do not seek refuge in Me. (7.15)

Four Types of Humans
Four types of virtuous ones worship Me, O Arjuna. The one in the distress, the seeker of knowledge, the seeker of wealth, and the wise imbued with Wisdom. (7.16) 130

Among them the wise one, who is ever united with Me and whose devotion is single minded, is the best. Because I am very dear to the wise, and the wise is very dear to Me. (7.17)

All these (seekers) are indeed noble, but I regard the wise as My very Spirit, because the one who is steadfast becomes one with the Supreme Being. (7.18)131

More on the yoga of Wisdom
After many births the wise ones surrender to Me by realizing that everything is (a manifestation of) God indeed. Such a great soul is very rare.(7.19)

They, whose wisdom was carried away by various desires impelled by their own lack of discrimination, they resort to other gods (or deities) and practice various religious rites. (7.20)

Whosoever desires to worship whatever deity (using whatever name, form, and method) with faith, I make their faith steady in that very deity. (7.21)

Endowed with steady faith they worship that deity, and fulfill their wishes through that deity. Those wishes are indeed, when noble, granted only by Me. (7.22)

But the fruits gained by these less intelligent human beings are of a temporary nature. The worshippers of gods go to gods, but My devotees come to Me. (7.23) 132

The ignorant think of Me, the Unmanifest, as having a form or personality, not knowing My Supreme state - unspeakable and unsurpassed.(7.24)133

Veiled by My divine Illusion, I am not known by all. Therefore, the ignorant one does not know Me as the Unborn and Eternal God. (7.25)

I know, O Arjuna, the beings of the past, of the present, and those of the future, but no one really knows Me. (7.26)

All beings in this world are in utter ignorance due to the delusion of dualities born of likes and dislikes, O Arjuna. (7.27)

Persons of virtuous (or unselfish) deeds, whose crooked aims have come to an end, become free from the delusion of dualities and worship Me with firm resolve. (7.28)

Those who strive for freedom from (the cycles of birth) old age and death by taking refuge in Me, they realize and come to know God, the individual spirit, and all karma in its entirety. (7.29)

The steadfast persons, who know that God is everything, the Adhibhota, the Adhidaiva, and the Adhiyajna, remember Me even at the time of death (and attain Me). (7.30) 134

8: The Mystery of Omnipresence
Arjuna said.. O Krishna, what is the Universal Life? What is that which we call Spirit-consciousness? What is the essential nature of Action? What is the constitution of the Universal Principles? And what is known as the Arch-angelic hosts, higher by far than humankind? (8.01)

O Krishna, who is Wisdom, and how does She dwell in the body? How can You be remembered at the time of death by the steadfast? (8.02)

The Lord said: God is the All from which all proceeds. From Me flows out the Spirit of Spirits - the Universal Life - the One Life of the Universe. Cause & effect, the essence of Action, is that principle of my emanation which cause things to live, and move and act. (8.03)

The Universal Principles, in their inner constitution, are but my Will manifested in the Natural laws of the universe. The knowledge of the Arch-angelic hosts is the knowledge of the Soul. The secret of My appearance in the flesh, belongs to those who are able to understand the higher teachings, and is closely woven in with the Law of Sacrifice (Yajna). (8.04)

At the hour of death, the wise one, with mind fixed upon me, comes straight to Me, without a doubt. But the one who fixed their desire on something else - if there be to that one a greater god, material or otherwise, than Me - to that god of materiality, or super-materiality, goes that one. Each goes to that which is their ruling passion, even at the hour of death - so then, fight the fight that lies before you. (8.05-6)

Therefore, with your mind and understanding firmly fixed upon Me, certainly you will come to Me. To the Spirit goes the one, who, setting aside all desire, lives the life of the Spirit by constant Right Thinking and Right Action; to the Spirit goes the one who is of the Spirit.(8.07-8)

How the yogi gives up the body
Meditating on God as the Omniscient, the Oldest, the Ruler, smaller than the smallest and bigger than the biggest, the Sustainer of everything, the Inconceivable, the Spirit luminous like the sun, and as Transcendental; (8.O9)

at the time of death with steadfast mind and devotion, making the flow of Wisdom force rise up by the power of yoga and holding it there; then the body is given up and the spirit flows into the Divine Spirit. (8.10)135

I shall briefly explain to you the process to attain that goal which the knowers of Scripture call the Imperishable; into which the ascetics, freed from attachment, enter; and desiring which, they lead a life of celibacy. (8.11)

Controlling all the (nine) door’s of the body, the abode of consciousness; focussing the mind on the heart and Wisdom force in the cerebrum, and engaged in firm yoga, meditating on God and uttering Aum; the one leaving the body in this state attains the supreme goal.(8.12-13)

I am easily attainable, O Arjuna, by that ever steadfast yogi who always thinks of Me and whose mind does not wander.

After attaining Me the great souls do not incur rebirth, which is impermanent and the home of misery, because they have attained the highest perfection. (8.15)

Immortality, rebirth and annihilation
The dwellers of all the worlds including the world of the Creator, are subject to repeated birth and death but, after attaining Me, O Arjuna, one does not take birth again. (See also 9.25) (8.16)

Those who know that the day of the Creator lasts one thousand Yugas and that his night also lasts one thousand Yugas, they are the knowers of day and night. (8.17)136

At the coming of day all manifest beings proceed from the unmanifest, and at the coming of night they merge again in the same which is called the unmanifest.(8.18)

The same multitude of beings come into existence again and again at the arrival of the day of the Creator, and they are annihilated and merged, inevitably, at the arrival of the Creator’s night. (8.19)

On Immortality and how to gain it
There is another eternal unmanifest state higher than both Uncreate Energy and Creative Energy that does not perish when all beings perish. (8.20) 137

This unmanifest state is called the Imperishable or God. This is said to be the Ultimate Goal. Those who reach My Supreme abode do not return (or take rebirth). (8.21)

This Supreme abode, O Arjuna, is attainable by unswerving devotion to Me within which all beings exist, and by which all this universe is pervaded. (8.22) 138

O Arjuna, now I shall describe different paths departing by which, during death, the yogis do or do not come back. (8.23)

Fire, light, daytime, the bright lunar fortnight, and the six months of the northern solstice of the sun; departing by the path of these gods the yogis, who know God, attain ecstasy. (8.24) 139

Smoke, night, the dark lunar fortnight, and the six months of southern solstice of the sun; departing by these paths, the righteous person attains lunar light (or heaven) and reincarnates. (8.25)

The path of light and the path of darkness (of materialism and ignorance) are thought to be the world’s two eternal paths. The former leads to nirvana and the latter leads to rebirth. (8.26)

Knowing these two paths, O Arjuna, a yogi is not bewildered at all. Therefore, O Arjuna, be steadfast in yoga at all times. (8.27)

The yogi who knows all this goes beyond getting the benefits of the study of the Scriptures, performance of sacrifices, austerities, and charities, and attains the Supreme eternal abode. (8.28)

9: Kingly Knowledge and the Mystery of Mysteries
The Lord said: I shall reveal to you, who do not disbelieve, the most profound secret of Spirit-knowledge and Spirit-realisation. Knowing this you will be freed from evil. (9.01)

This knowledge is the king of all knowledge, it is the most mysterious, is very sacred, it can be perceived by instinct, it conforms to Law, is very easy to practice and is imperishable. (9.02)

O Arjuna, those who have no faith in this law follow the cycle of birth and death without attaining Me. (9.03)

This entire universe is pervaded by Me, the unmanifest God. All beings depend on and remain, in Me. I do not depend on or remain in them. (9.04) 140

And yet beings, in reality, do not remain in Me. Look at the power of My divine mystery. Though the sustainer and creator of all beings, My Spirit does not remain in them. (9.05) 141

As the mighty wind moving everywhere ever rests in the Universal Space – so do all manifested things rest in Me, the Unmanifest.(9.06)

All beings merge into My Creative Energy at the end of a Kalpa (or a cycle of 4.32 billion years), O Arjuna, and I create (or manifest) beings again at the beginning of the next Kalpa. (9.07)

Using My Creative Energy I create, again and again, the entire multitude of beings that are helpless, being under the control (of the Gunas of) Creative Energy. (9.08)

These acts of creation do not bind Me, O Arjuna, because I remain indifferent and unattached to those acts. (9.09)

The Creative Energy or nature, under My supervision, creates all animate and inanimate objects; and thus the creation keep on going, O Arjuna. (9.10)142

The ignorant of this Truth
The ignorant ones, not knowing My supreme energies or my true nature as Lord of All, disregard Me when I assume human form. (9.11)

Ignorant persons cling to false hopes, false actions, and false knowledge; living in the lower planes of their being, they remain delusive and produce qualities of egocentric pretenders and demons as their highest mastery. (9.12) 143

But great souls, O Arjuna, who partake in divine nature, worship Me with a single mind, knowing Me as the immutable and source of all (9.13)

Glorifying Me always striving, firm in their vows, they prostrate before Me and worship Me devotedly, ever steadfast (9.14)

Some sacrifice with knowledge-Sacrifice. Others worship God in various ways as infinite as the one in all, as the master of all, and in various other ways. (9.15) 144

I am in the Ritual, I am in the Sacrifice, I am in the medicinal herb, I am in the thought and sound of the Mantra, I am in the clarified butter, I am in the fire, I am the homage. (See also 4.24) (9.16) 145

I am the supporter of the universe, the Father, the Mother, and if you want even the Grandfather. I am the knowable, the purifier, the sacred syllable Aum, and also the Holy Scriptures. (9.17)

I am the Goal, the Supporter, the Lord, the Witness, the Abode, the Shelter, the Friend, the Origin, the Dissolution, the Foundation, the Treasure house and the imperishable seed. (See also 7.10 and 10.39} (9.18)

I give heat, I send as well as withhold the rain, I am immortality as well as death, I am being as well as non-being, O Arjuna. (9.19)146

The knowers of the Scriptures and the drinkers of the Soma (mystic meal), whose sins are cleansed, worship Me by Service praying for the way to heaven. As a result of their good Cause & Effect they go to that heaven where celestial beings abide and enjoy celestial sense pleasures. (9.20)

Having enjoyed the wide world of heavenly sense pleasures they return to the mortal world upon exhaustion of their good Cause & Effect. Thus following the decree of the Scriptures, those desiring things, they come and go between the worlds. (9.21) 147

To those ever steadfast devotees, with single-minded contemplation on Me, I take responsibility for their gains and I see to their welfare and security. (9.22) 148

O Arjuna, even those devotees who worship demigods with faith, they too worship Me, but in an improper way. (9.23)

I am truly the enjoyer of all Selfless Service and I am its Lord. But these people do not know My true nature, and then they fall (into the repeated cycles of birth and death). (9.24)

Those professing the demigods go to the demigods, the worshippers of the ancestors go to the ancestors, and the worshippers of the ghosts go to the ghosts, but My devotees come to Me and are not born again. (9.25)149

Whosoever offers Me a leaf, a flower, a fruit, or water with devotion; I accept and eat the offering of devotion by the pure-hearted. (9.26) 150

O Arjuna, whatever you do, whatever you eat, whatever you offer as sacrifice to the sacred fire, whatever charity you give, whatever humility you perform, do all that as an offering unto Me. (9.27) 151

By this attitude of complete renunciation you shall be freed from the bondage, good and bad, of Cause & Effect. You shall be liberated, and come to Me. (9.28) 152

The Spirit is present equally in all beings.There is no one hateful or dear to Me. But, those who worship Me with devotion, they are with Me and I am also with them. (9.29)153

Even if the most sinful person resolves to worship Me with single-minded loving devotion, such a person must be regarded as a saint because of making the right resolution. (9.30)

Such a person soon becomes righteous and attains everlasting peace. Be aware, O Arjuna, that My devotee never falls dawn. (9.31)

Anybody, including women, merchants, labourers, and the evil-minded can attain the supreme goal by just surrendering unto My will (with loving devotion), O Arjuna.(9 32)154

Then, it should be very easy for the holy Priests and higher castes and devout royal sages to attain the Supreme state! Therefore having obtained this joyless and transient human life, one should worship Me and be elevated from here. (9.33)

Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me, worship Me, and bow down to Me. Thus uniting yourself with Me, and setting Me as the supreme goal and sole refuge, you shall certainly realise or (come to) Me. (9.34)

10: Manifestation of the Absolute
The Lord said: O Arjuna, listen once again to My supreme word that I shall speak to you. Desiring to benefit you Arjuna, I whish to speak for your ecstasy. (10.01)

Neither the Angels and heavenly powers nor the great sages know My origin, because I am the origin of all angels and powers and sages also. (10.02)

One who knows Me as the unborn, the beginningless, and the Lord of the universe, is considered wise among the mortals, and gets liberation from bondage of improper aims. (10.03)

Intellect, wisdom, non-delusion, patience, truth, self-restraint, calmness, pleasure, pain, birth, death, fear, fearlessness; (10.04).

non-violence, equanimity, contentment, humility, charity, fame, and ill fame; all these diverse qualities in human beings arise from Me alone. (10.05)

The seven great Sages and the four ancient beings, from whom all these creatures of the world were born, originated from My potential energy. (10.06)

One who truly understands My manifestations and powers, is united with Me in unswerving yoga. There is no doubt about this. (10.07)

I am the origin of all. Everything emanates from Me. Understanding this, the wise ones worship Me with all their heart. (10.08)

With their minds fixed on Me, with their lives surrendered unto Me, always enlightening each other by talking about Me; they remain ever content and delighted. (10.09)

Buddhi Yoga
To them, ever devout, worshipping Me with love, I give the yoga of discrimination by which they come to Me. (10.10) 155

Out of compassion for them I, who dwell within their heart, destroy the darkness born of ignorance by the shining lamp of Wisdom. (10.11) 156

All mythology of ages point also to God’s energies
Arjuna said: You are the Supreme God, the supreme Abode, the Supreme Purifier, the Eternal Divine Spirit, the primal God, the Unborn, the Omnipresent. (10.12)

All sages in all Scriptures over the ages have thus acclaimed You, and now You Yourself tell me. (10.13)

O Lord, I believe all that You have told Me to be true. O Lord, neither the heavenly creatures or the demons fully understand Your manifestations. (10.14)157

O Creator and Lord of all beings, God of all gods, Supreme person and Lord of the universes, You alone know Yourself by Yourself. (10.15)

You alone are able to fully describe Your own divine glories, the manifestations by which You exist pervading all the universe, if you will. (10.16)

How may I know You, O Lord, by constant contemplation? In what forms are You to be thought of by me, O Lord? (10.17)

O Lord, explain to me again in detail, Your yogic power and glory; because, I am not satiated by hearing Your nectar-like words. (10.18)

The Lord said: O Arjuna, now I shall explain to you My divine manifestations according to their prominence, but there is however no end to My manifestations. (10.19)

O Arjuna, I am the spirit abiding in the heart of all beings. I am also the beginning, the middle, and the end of all beings. (10.20)

Of the twelve months I am January which dispels the winter; I am the radiant sun among the luminaries, I am the Fertile wind among the winds, I am the moon among the asterisms. (10.21)

I am the Psalms and Chants among the Scriptures, I am Indra among the deities; I am the mind among the senses; I am the consciousness in living beings. (10.22)

I am Shiva among the crying inducing Rudra; I am the Lord of wealth among the demons; I am fire among the elements; and I am the conscious axis of the world among the mountain peaks. (10.23)

Among the priests, O Arjuna, know Me to be the priest of the deities. Among the army generals, I am Skanda, the general over the celestial army; I am the ocean among the bodies of water. (10.24)

Of the sages I am the ever super-conscious one; I am the monosyllable AUM among the words; I am japa-yajna (constant prayer) among Service; and I am the Himalaya among the immovables. (10.25)

I am the holy fig tree, peepul, among the trees, I am the singer of the name of God and bringer of blessings in strife among the celestial sages, Chitraratha, overlord of celestial passion am I, and sage KapiIa who authored Samkya Yoga am I. (10.26)

Know Me as the mythological Uchchaihshrava, born at the time of churning the ocean for getting the nectar, among the horses; Airaavata among the elephants; and the King among men, who all work the universes to obtain happiness. (10.27) 158

I am thunderbolt among the weapons, Kamadhuk among cows, and the Cupid among the procreators. Among the serpents, I am Vasuki. (10.28) 159

I am Anantha among the Nagas, I am Varuna among the water deities, and Adam among the first incomers. I am Yama among the controllers. (10.29) 160

I am Prahlada among Daityas, Time among the healing reckoners, Lion among the beasts, and the lord of birds. (10.30) 161

I am the wind among the purifiers, and Lord Rama among the warriors. I am the shark among the fishes, and the Ganges among the rivers. (10.31)

I am the beginning, the middle, and the end of the creation, O Arjuna. Among the sciences I am the science of the spirit. I am reason of the debater. (10.32) 162

I am the letter “A” among the alphabets, among the compound words I am the dual compound, I am the endless time, I am the sustainer of all, and I am omniscient. (10.33)

I am the all-devouring death, and also the origin of future beings. Among the feminine nouns I am fame, prosperity, speech, memory, intellect, resolve, and forgiveness. (10.34)

I am Brihat-sama among the hymns. I am Gayatri among the mantras, I am November-December among the months, I am the spring among the seasons. (10.35)163

I am the gambling of the fraudulent; I am the splendour of the splendid; I am victory of the victorious; I am resolution of the resolute; I am the goodness of the good. (10.36)

I am Vasudeva among the Vrishni, Arjuna among the Pandavas, Vyasa among the sages, and Ushanda among the poets. (10.37)164

I am the power of rulers, the statesmanship of the seekers of victory, I am silence among the secrets, and Wisdom in the wise. (10.38)

I am the origin or seed of all beings, O Arjuna. There is nothing, animate or inanimate, that can exist without Me. (10.39)165

There is no end of My divine manifestations, O Arjuna. This is only a brief description by Me of the extent of My divine manifestations. (10.40)

Whatever is endowed with glory, brilliance, and power know that to be a manifestation of a fraction of My splendour. (10.41)

What is the need for this detailed knowledge, O Arjuna? I continually support the entire universe by a small fraction of My energy. (10.42)

11: Vision of the Cosmic Form
Arjuna said: My illusion is dispelled by Your profound words, that You spoke out of compassion towards me about the supreme secret of the Spirit. (11.01)

O Krishna, I have heard from You in detail about the origin and dissolution of beings, and Your imperishable glory. (11.02)

O Lord, You are as You have said, yet I wish to see Your divine cosmic form, O Supreme Being. (11.03)

O Lord, if You think it is possible for me to see this, then O Lord of the yogis, show me Your imperishable Spirit. (11.04)

The Lord said: O Arjuna, behold My hundreds and thousands of multifarious divine forms of different colours and shapes. (11.05)

See the Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, the Ashvins, and the Maruts. Behold, O Arjuna, many wonders never seen before. (11.06)166

O Arjuna, now behold the entire creation; animate, inanimate, and whatever else you like to see; All at one place in My body. (11.07)

But, you are not able to see Me with your physical eye; therefore, I give you the divine eye to see My majestic power and glory. (11.08) 167

Sanjaya said: O King, having said this; Lord Krishna, the great Lord of yoga’s mystic powers, revealed His supreme majestic form to Arjuna; (11.09)

with many mouths and eyes, and many visions of marvel, with numerous divine ornaments, and holding divine weapons; (11.10)

wearing divine garlands and apparel, anointed with celestial perfumes and ointments, full of all wonders, The limitless God with faces on all sides (omniscient). (11.11)

If the splendour of thousands of suns were to blaze forth all at once in the sky, even that would not resemble the splendour of that exalted being. (11.12)

There in the body of God, Arjuna saw all the universes, divided in many ways, but drawn into together into one. (11.13)

Then Arjuna, filled with wonder and his hairs standing on end, bowed his head to the Lord and prayed with folded hands. (11.14) 168

Arjuna said: O Lord, I see in Your body all the deities and multitude of beings, all sages, celestial energies, Lord Shiva as well as Lord Brahma seated on the lotus. (11.15) 169

O Lord of the universes, I see You everywhere with infinite form with many arms, stomachs, faces, and eyes. Neither do I see the beginning nor the middle nor the end of Your Universal Form. (11.16) 170

I see You with Your crown, club, discus; and a mass of radiance, difficult to behold, shining all around with immeasurable brilliance of the sun and the blazing fire171. (11.17)

New realization enters after the mystical experience
I believe You are the imperishable, the Supreme to be realized. You are the ultimate resort of the universe. You are The protector of eternal Laws, and the imperishable primal Spirit. (11.18)

I see You with infinite power, without beginning, middle, or end; with many arms, with the sun and the moon as Your eyes, with Your mouth as a blazing fire whose radiance provides Light to all the universes. (11.19)

The entire space between heaven and earth is pervaded by You alone in all directions. Seeing Your marvellous and terrible form, the three Worlds are trembling with fear, O Lord. (11.20)

The hosts of deities enter into You. Some with folded hands sing Your names and glories in fear. A multitude of Great Souls and Gifted Ones hail and adore You with abundant praises. (11.21)

Rudras, Adityas, Vasus, Saadhyas, Deities, Ashvins, Maruts, Ushmapas, Gandharvas, Yakshas, Asuras, and Siddhas; they all amazingly gaze at You. (11.22)

Seeing your infinite form with many mouths, eyes, arms, thighs, feet, stomachs, and many fearful teeth; the worlds are trembling with fear and so do I, O mighty Lord. (11.23)

Seeing Your great effulgent and various coloured form touching the sky; Your mouth wide open and large shining eyes; I am frightened and find neither peace nor courage, O Krishna. (11.24)

Seeing Your mouths, with fearful teeth, glowing like fires of cosmic dissolution, I lose my sense of direction and find no comfort. Have mercy on me. O Lord of gods, refuge of the universe. (11.25)

The sons of Dhatarashtra along with the hosts of kings; Bhishma, Drona, and Karna together with chief warriors on our side are also quickly entering into Your fearful mouths having terrible teeth. Some are seen caught in between the teeth with their heads crushed. (11.26-27) 172

As many torrents of the rivers rush toward the ocean, similarly, those warriors of the mortal world are entering Your blazing mouths. (11.28)

As moths rush with great speed into the blazing flame for destruction, similarly all these people are rapidly rushing into Your mouths for destruction. (11.29)

You are licking up all the worlds with Your flaming mouths, swallowing them from all sides. Your powerful radiance is burning the entire universe, and filling it with splendour, O Krishna. (11.30)

Tell me who are You in such a fierce form? My salutations to You, O best of gods, be merciful! I wish to understand You, the primal Being, because I do not know Your mission. (11.31)

The Lord said: I am the mighty world-destroying Time, engaged in wiping the world. Even without your participation all the warriors standing arrayed in the opposing armies shall cease to exist. (11.32)

Therefore, you get up and attain glory. Conquer your enemies and enjoy a prosperous kingdom. All these (warriors) have already been destroyed by Me. You are only an instrument, O Arjuna. (11.33)

Kill Drona, Bhishma, Jayadratha, Karna, and other great warriors who are already killed by Me. Do not fear. You will certainly conquer the enemies in the battle, therefore, fight.(11.34)

Sanjaya said: Having heard these words of Krishna; the crowned Arjuna, trembling with folded hands, prostrated with fear and spoke to Krishna in a choked voice. (11.35)

Arjuna said: Rightly, O Krishna, the world delights and rejoices in glorifying You. Terrified demons flee in all directions. The hosts of Siddhas bow to You in adoration. (11.36)

Why should they not, O great soul, bow to You, the original creator who is even greater than the Creative Energies? O infinite Lord, O God of gods, O abode of the universe, You are both Sat and Asat, and the imperishable God that is beyond both (Sat and Asat). (11.37) 173

You are the primal God, the most ancient Person. You are the ultimate resort of all the universe. You are the knower, knowable, and the supreme abode. The entire universe is pervaded by You, O Lord of the infinite form. (11.38)

You are all, Vayu, Yama, Agni, Varuna, Shashanka, and Brahma as well as the father of Brahma. Salutations to You a thousand times, and again and again salutations to You.(11.39)

My salutations to You from front and from behind. O Lord, my obeisance to You from all sides. You are infinite valour and the boundless might. You pervade everything, and therefore You are everywhere and in, everything. (11.4O)

Considering You merely as a friend, not knowing Your greatness, I have inadvertently addressed You as O Krishna, O Yadava, O friend; merely out of affection or carelessness. (11.41)

In whatever way I may have insulted You in jokes; while playing, reposing in bed, sitting, or at meals; when alone, or in front of others; O Krishna, I implore You for forgiveness. (11.42)

You are the father of this animate and inanimate world, and the greatest teacher to be worshipped. No one is even equal to You in the three worlds; how can there be one greater than You? O Being of incomparable Glory (11.43)

Therefore, O adorable Lord, I seek Your grace by bowing down and prostrating my body before You. Bear with me as a father to his son, as a friend to a friend, and as a husband to his wife, O Lord. (11.44)

I am delighted by beholding that which has never been seen before, and yet my mind is tormented with fear. Show me that (four-armed) form. O God of gods, the refuge of the universe have mercy. (11.45)

I wish to see You with a crown, holding mace and discus in Your hand, O Lord with thousand arms and universal form, appear in the four-armed form. (11.46)

The Lord said: O Arjuna, being pleased with you I have shown you, through My own yogic powers, this Supreme, shining, universal, infinite, and primal form of Mine that has never been seen before by anyone other than you. (11.47)

Neither by study of the Scriptures, nor by Service, nor by charity, nor by rituals, nor by severe austerities, can I be seen in the cosmic form in this human world by anyone other than you, O Arjuna. (11.48)

Do not be perturbed and deluded by seeing such a terrible form of Mine as this. With fearless and cheerful mind, now behold My four-armed form. (11.49)

Sanjaya said: Lord Krishna, having thus spoken to Arjuna, revealed His four-armed form. Then assuming His gentle human form, the great-souled one, Krishna, consoled Arjuna who was terrified. (11.50)

Arjuna said: O Krishna, seeing this gentle human form of Yours, I have now become composed and I am normal again. (11.51)

The Lord said; This (four-armed) form of Mine that you have seen is very difficult, indeed, to see. Even the deities are ever longing to see this form. (11.52)

Neither by study of the Scriptures, nor by humility, nor by charity nor by ritual, can I be seen in this form as you have seen Me. (11.53)

However, through single-minded devotion alone, I can be seen in this form, can be known in essence, and also can be reached, O Arjuna . (11.54)

The one who does all works for Me, and to whom I am the supreme goal, who is my devotee, who has no attachment, and is free from enmity towards any being attains Me, O Arjuna. (See also 2.22) (11.55)

12: Yoga of Devotion
Arjuna said: Those ever-steadfast devotees who worship You as the manifest or personal God, and those who worship the eternal unmanifest, the formless or impersonal God (by Jnana-yoga), which of these has the best knowledge of yoga? (12.O1)

The Lord said: Those ever steadfast devotees who worship with supreme faith by fixing their mind on Me as personal God, I consider them to be the best yogis. (12.O2)174

But those who worship the Imperishable, the Undefinable, the Unmanifest, the Omnipresent, the Unthinkable, the Unchanging, the Immovable, and the eternal God; (12.O3)

restraining all the senses, even minded under all circumstances, engaged in the welfare of all creatures, they also attain Me. (12.O4)

Spirit-realisation is more difficult for those who fix their mind on the formless God, because the comprehension of the unmanifest God by the average embodied human being is very difficult. (12.O5)

But, to those who worship Me as the personal God, renouncing All actions to Me: setting Me as their supreme goal, and meditating on Me with single minded devotion; (12.O6)

I swiftly become their saviour, from the world that is the ocean of death and transmigration, whose thoughts are set on Me, O Arjuna. (12.O7)

Therefore, fix your mind on Me alone and let your intellect dwell upon Me through meditation and contemplation. Thereafter you shall certainly come to Me. (12.O8)

If you are unable to meditate (or focus your mind) steadily on Me, then seek to reach Me, O Arjuna, by repetitive ritualistic practise which will train the mind. (12.O9)175

If you are unable even to do any of that (Sadhana), then be intent on performing your duty for Me. You shall attain perfection just by working for Me as an instrument.(12.10)176

If you are unable to work for Me then just surrender unto My will, and renounce the attachment to, and the anxiety for the fruits of all action by learning to accept all results, with equanimity, as God-given. (12.11)

Knowledge is better than formal ritualistic practice, meditation is better than mere knowledge, renunciation of the fruit of action is better than meditation, peace immediately follows the renunciation of the fruit of work. (12.12)177

One who does not hate any creature, who is friendly and compassionate, free from the notion of “I” and “my”, even-minded in pain and pleasure, forgiving: and (12.13)

the yogi who is ever content, who has subdued the mind, whose resolve is firm, whose mind and intellect are engaged in dwelling upon Me; such a devotee is dear to Me. (12.14)

The one by whom others are not afflicted, and who is not afflicted by others; who is free from joy, envy, fear, and anxiety - is dear to Me. (12.15)

One who is free from desires; who is pure, wise, impartial, and free from anxiety; who has renounced the idea of doership in all undertakings; and who is devoted to Me, is dear to Me. (12.16)

One who neither rejoices nor grieves, neither likes nor dislikes, who has renounced good and evil, and who is full of devotion, such a person is clear to Me. (12.17)

The one who remains the same towards friend or foe, in honour or disgrace, in heat or cold, in pleasure or pain; who is free from attachment; and (12.18)

the one who is indifferent or silent in censure or praise, content with anything, unattached to a place (country, or house), steady-minded, and full of devotion; that person is dear to Me.(12.19)

But those devotees who have faith and sincerely try to follow the above mentioned dharma (teaching / law) of immortal virtues, and set Me as their supreme goal; are very clear to Me. (12.20)

13: Creation and the Creator
Arjuna said, Creative Energies and Uncreate Energies, and the Field of Creation, and the wisdom thereof, O Lord, that I wish to learn.

The Lord said: O Arjuna, this body of yours is a miniature universe and may be called the field or creation. One who knows the creation is called the creator by the seers of truth. (13.01) 178

Know Me to be the Creator of all creation, O Arjuna. The true understanding of both the Creator and the creation is considered by Me to be the transcendental or metaphysical knowledge. (13.02) 179

What the creation is, what it is like, what its transformations are, where the source is, who that creator is, and what His powers are, hear all these from Me in brief. (13.03)

The sages have described the Creator in many ways, in various hymns, and also in the convincing verses of Scripture. (13.04)

The great elements, egoism or the “I” consciousness, the intellect, the unmanifest Creative Energy, the ten senses and the one mind and the five objects of the senses; (13.05)180

desire, hatred, pleasure, pain, the combined elements in physical body, consciousness, and resolve. Thus the field of creation (the body) has been briefly described with its transformations. (13.06)

Humility, modesty, nonviolence, forbearance, honesty, service to teacher, purity (of thought, word, and deed), steadfastness, self-control; and (13.07)

dispassion towards sense objects, absence of ego, constant reflection on the agony and suffering inherent in birth, old age, disease, and death; (13.08)

non-attachment, non-identification of self with child, wife, and home; unfailing equanimity upon attainment of the desirable and the undesirable; and (13.09)181

unswerving devotion to Me by the yoga of non-separation, love for solitude, distaste for social trivialities; (13.10)

steadfastness in knowledge of the Supreme Spirit, perception of (the omnipresent God as) the object of true knowledge, is called knowledge; what is contrary to this is ignorance. (13.11)182

Creator described
I shall fully describe the object of knowledge, and having this knowledge one attains immortality. The Supreme God is beginningless and is not said to be Being or Non-Being. (13.12)183

With hands and feet everywhere; having eyes, heads, and faces everywhere, having ears everywhere the creator exists in the creation by pervading everything. (13.13)184

He is the perceiver of all senses without the senses; unattached, yet He is the sustainer of all; devoid of the Gunas, yet, He experiences them all. (13.14)185

Inside as well as outside all beings, both animate and inanimate, He is incomprehensible, because of His subtlety. He is extremely near and very far removed. (13.15)

Undivided, yet He appears as if divided in beings; He is to be known as the creator, sustainer, and destroyer of all beings. (13.16)

The Light of all lights, He is said to be beyond darkness. He is the knowledge, the knowable, and seated in the hearts of all beings.186(13.17)

Loving devotion evolves into higher Knowledge
Thus the creation as well as the knowledge and the object of knowledge have been briefly described. Understanding this, My devotee attains Me. (13.18)187

Creative energy and Uncreate Energy are eternal realities
Know that Creative Energy and Uncreate Energy are both beginningless; and also know that all manifestations and Gunas arise from Creative Energy.188 (13.19)

The Creative Energy is said to be the cause of production of physical body and organs (of perception and action). Uncreate Energy (or the consciousness) is said to be the cause of experiencing pleasures and pains. (13.20)189

Uncreate Energy associating with Creative Energy, enjoys the Gunas of Creative Energy. Attachment to the Gunas is the cause of the birth of Jivatman in good and evil wombs. (13.21)190

Uncreate Divine Energy in the body is also called Witness, Guide, Sympathiser, Experience, and the Great Lord or Holy Spirit. (13.22)191

They who truly understand Uncreate Energy and Creative Energy with its Gunas are not born again regardless of their way of life. (13.23)192

Some perceive God in the heart by the spirit through meditation; others by the yoga of knowledge (Jnana yoga or theology); and others by the yoga of action (or Karma-yoga). (13.24)

Some, however, do not understand God, but having heard from others, take to worship. They also go beyond death by their firm faith to what they have heard. (13.25)

Whatever being is born, animate or inanimate, know them to be born from the union of the field (or Creative Energy) and the field knower (or Uncreate Energy), O Arjuna. (13.26)193

The one who sees the imperishable Lord dwelling equally within all perishable beings truly sees. (13.27)

Seeing the same Lord existing in every being, one does not injure the Spirit by the spirit and therefore attains the Supreme Goal. (13.28) 194

Those who perceive that all works are done by the (Gunas of) Creative Energy alone, and thus the spirit remains actionless, they truly understand. (13.29)195

When one perceives diverse variety of beings resting in One and spreading out from that alone, then one attains God. (13.30)

The imperishable Supreme Spirit, being beginningless and without Gunas, though dwelling in the body (as spirit) neither does anything nor gets tainted, O Arjuna. (13.31)

As the all pervading ether is not tainted because of its subtlety, similarly the Spirit, seated in everybody, is not tainted. (13.32)

O Arjuna, just as one sun illuminates this entire world, similarly the creator illumines (or gives life to) the entire creation. (13.33)

They, who understand the difference between the creation (or the body) and the creator (or the spirit) and know the technique of liberation from the trap of Illusion with the help of knowledge, attain the Supreme. (13.34)

14: Yoga of the Three Gunas of Nature
The Lord said: I shall further explain to you that supreme knowledge, the best of all knowledge, knowing which, all the sages have attained supreme perfection after this life. (14.01)

Those who have taken refuge in this knowledge attain unity with Me, and are neither born at the time of creation nor afflicted at the time of dissolution of the universes. (14.02)

O Arjuna, My Creative Energy (or the material nature) is the womb wherein I place the seed (of spirit or Uncreate Energy) from which all beings are born.(14.03)196

Whatever forms are produced in all different wombs, O Arjuna the great Creative Energy is their body-giving Mother, the Uncreate Energy is the life-giving Father. (14.04)

Sattva or goodness, Rajas or activity, and Tamas or inertia; these three Gunas, born of Creative Energy, bind the imperishable embodied one (Jivatman or spirit-soul) fast to the body, O Arjuna. (14.05)

Of these, Sattva, being stainless, is luminous and non-obstructing. It binds, by creating attachment to happiness and attachment to knowledge, O Arjuna. (14.06) 197

O Arjuna, know that Rajas is characterized by selfish activity and is of the nature of passion. It is the source of desire and attachment; it binds fast the embodied one by attachment to action. (14.07)

Know, O Arjuna, that Tamas, this deluder of Jivatman (embodied beings) is born of ignorance and a desire for return to this earth. It binds by negligence, ignorance, laziness, and excessive sleep. (14.08)

Sattva binds one to happiness, Rajas to action, and Tamas to ignorance by pulling a veil over knowledge. (14.09)

When Sattva dominates it suppresses Rajas and Tamas; When Rajas dominates it suppresses Sattva and Tamas; and When Tamas dominates it suppresses Sattva and Rajas, O Arjuna. (14.10)

When the lamp of knowledge shines through all the nine gates of the body, then it should be known that Sattva is predominant. (14.11) 198

Greed, activity, restlessness, passion, and undertaking of (selfish) works arise when Raja is predominant, O Arjuna. (14.12)

Ignorance, inactivity, carelessness, and delusion arise when Tamas is predominant, O Arjuna. (14.13)

One who dies after a life during which Sattva dominated one goes to heaven, the pure world of the knowers of the Supreme. (14.14)

When one dies after a life during which the dominance of Rajas, one is reborn as attached to action; and dying after the dominance of Tamas, one is reborn as ignorant. (14.15)

The fruit of good action is said to be Sattvika and pure, the fruit of Rajas action is pain, and the fruit of Tamas action is ignorance. (14.16)

Wisdom arises from Sattva, desires and greed from Rajas; and negligence, delusion, and ignorance arise from Tamas. (14.17)

Those who are established in Sattva go upwards (to heaven); Rajas persons remain in the middle (are reborn in the mortal world); and the Tamas persons, abiding in the functions of the lowest Guna, go downwards (to hell as they are repeatedly born as lower creatures of their kind, being more and more severed from the Light and the kinship with God and deity). (14.18)

When seers perceive no doer other than the Gunas (or the Creative Energies), and know that which is above and beyond the Gunas (Uncreate Energies); then they attain ecstasy. (14.19)199

When one transcends (or rise above) the three Gunas that originate in the mind and from which the human evolves; one is freed from birth, death, old age, and pain; and attains ecstasy. (14.20)

Arjuna said: What are the characteristics of those who have transcended the three Gunas, and what is their conduct? How does one transcend the three Gunas, O Lord Krishna?(14.21)

The Lord said: One who neither hates the presence of enlightenment, activity, and delusion nor desires for them when they are absent; and (14.22)

theone who remains like an unconcerned witness; who is not moved by the Gunas, knowing that the Gunas only are operating; who stands firm and does not waver; and (14.23)

the one who depends on the Lord and is indifferent to pain and pleasure; to whom a clod, a stone, and gold are alike: to whom the agreeable and disagreeable are alike; who is of firm mind; who is calm in censure and in praise; and (14.24)

the one who is indifferent in honour and disgrace; who is the same to friend and foe; who has renounced the senses of undertakings: is said to have risen above the Gunas. (14.25)

The one who offers service to Me with love and unswerving devotion transcends Gunas, and becomes fit for realizing God. (14.26)200

Because, I am the abode of the immortal and eternal God, of everlasting Law of Right Action, and of the Absolute Bliss. (14.27)

15: Yoga of the Supreme Spirit
The Lord said: They speak of the eternal Ashvattha tree having its roots above (in unmanifest God) and its branches below ( in the cosmos). Its leaves are the hymns and chants. One who understands this is a knower of the Scriptures.(15.01) 201

The branches (of this tree of Illusion) spread below and above (or all over the cosmos). The tree is nourished by the Gunas; sense pleasures are its buds; and its roots (of ego and desires) stretch below in the human world causing bondage to action. (15.02)

Neither its (real) form nor its beginning, neither its end nor its existence is perceptible here on the earth. Having cut these firm roots of the Ashvattha tree by the mighty ax of non-attachment; (15.03)

Then the Goal should be sought for, reaching of which one does not return again; thus thinking: In that Uncreate Energy I take refuge from which this Creative Energy comes forth. (15.04)

Those who are free from pride and delusion, who have conquered the evil of attachment, who are constantly dwelling in the Spirit with all Desire completely stilled, who are free from the dualities known as pleasure and pain; such undeluded persons reach the eternal goal. (15.05)

Where the sun does not cast its light, nor the moon, nor the fire. That is My supreme Abode. Having reached there they do not come back. (15.06)

An eternal portion of Myself having become the Soul in the world of souls, attracts the senses, with mind as the sixth, abiding in Creative Energy. (15.07)

As the air takes away the aroma from the source (or flower), similarly spirit takes the six sensory faculties from the body which it casts off (during death) to the (new) body it acquires when incarnating again. (15.08)202

The Jivatman enjoys sense pleasures with the help of six sensory faculties: hearing, touch, sight, taste, smell, and mind. (15.09)

The ignorant do not perceive the soul departing from the body, or remaining in the body and enjoying sense pleasures by associating with the Gunas. Those with the eye of knowledge can see. (15.10)

The yogis striving for perfection behold spirit abiding in their heart; but the ignorant, whose hearts are not pure, do not perceive it even through striving. (15.11)

The light coming from the sun illumines the whole world; and that which is in the moon, and in the fire; know that light to be Mine. (15.12)203

Entering the earth I support all beings with My Energies; and having become the sap-giving moon energy I nourish all the plants. (15.13)

Becoming the digestive fire, I remain in the body of all living beings; uniting with vital breaths, the Prana and Apana, I digest all four varieties of food; and (15.14)

I am seated in the hearts of all beings.204 The memory, knowledge, and the removal of doubts and wrong notions about the Spirit, by reasoning or revelation, come from me. I am verily that which is to be known by (the study of) all the Scriptures. I am, indeed, the author and the knower thereof. (See also 6.39) (15.15)

There are two Uncreate Energies which I activate in this world: the perishable and the imperishable. All beings are perishable, and the spirit is imperishable.(15.16) 205

There is another supreme Spirit called The Lord, who pervades the three Worlds and sustains them. (15.17) 206

I am beyond the perishable body and higher than the imperishable spirit; therefore I am known in this world and in the Scriptures as the Holy Spirit. (15.18)

The wise one who truly knows Me as the Holy Spirit, knows everything and worships (or surrenders to) Me wholeheartedly, O Arjuna.(15.19) 207

Thus this most secret science has been explained by Me, O sinless Arjuna. Having understood this, one becomes enlightened and all duties are thus accomplished. (15.20)

16: Yoga of division between Divine and Demoniacal qualities
The Lord said: Fearlessness, purity of heart, perseverance in the yoga of knowledge, charity, sense restraint, selfless duty, study of the Scriptures, humility, honesty; (16.01)

Non-violence, truthfulness, absence of anger, renunciation, equanimity, abstaining from malicious talk, compassion for all beings, freedom from greed, gentleness, modesty, absence of fickleness; (16.02)

Vigour, forgiveness, fortitude, purity, absence of malice, and absence of pride; these are the qualities of one reborn to the divine path, O Arjuna. (16.03)

Hypocrisy, arrogance, pride, inner harshness and anger, ignorance; these are the marks of those who are born to the demoniac path, O Arjuna. (16.04) 208

The divine path is deemed to liberation, the demoniacal path is said to be for bondage. Do not grieve, O Arjuna, you are born with divine qualities. (16.05)

There are two types of human beings in this world the divine, and the demoniacal. The divine has been described at length, now hear from Me about the demoniacal, O Arjuna. (16.06)

Persons of demoniacal nature do not know what to do and what not to do. They neither have purity or good conduct nor truthfulness in them. (16.07)

They say “the world is unreal, without a moral basis, without a God, and without an order. The world is caused by passion alone and nothing else”. (16.08) 209

Adhering to this view these ruined souls, with small intellect and cruel deeds, rise as enemies for the destruction of the world (16.09)

Filled with insatiable desires, hypocrisy, pride, and arrogance; holding wrong views due to delusion; they act with impure motives. (16.10)

Beset with anxiety ending only with death, regarding gratification of desires as the highest aim, and feeling convinced that that is all; (16.11)

Bound by ties of hope, given over to lust and anger, they strive to secure by all means hoards of wealth for sensual enjoyment, holding that as their highest aim. (16.12)

“This has been gained by me today, I shall fulfill this desire, this is mine and this wealth also shall be mine in the future”; (16.13) 210

”That enemy has been slain by me, and I shall slay others also. I am the lord over my own life, I am the enjoyer, I am successful, powerful, and happy;” (16.14)
“I am rich and born in a good family. Few are equal to me. I shall perform sacrifice, I shall give charity, and I shall rejoice.” Thus deluded by ignorance; (16.15)
Bewildered by many fancies; entangled in the net of delusion; addicted to the enjoyment of sensual pleasures: they fall into a foul hell. (16.16)

Self-conceited, stubborn, filled with pride and intoxication of wealth; they perform Service only in name for show, and not according to scriptural injunction. (16.17)

Clinging to egotism, power, arrogance lust, and anger; these malicious people hate Me, the One who dwells in their own body and others’ bodies. (16.18)

I hurl these haters, cruel, sinful, and mean people of the world, into the worlds of demons again and again. (16.19)

O Arjuna, entering the wombs of demons birth after birth, the deluded ones sink to the lowest hell without ever attaining Me.(16.20)

Lust, Anger, and Greed are the three gates of hell leading to the downfall (or bondage) of souls. Therefore, one must (learn to) give up these three. (16.21)

One who is liberated from these three gates of darkness, O Arjuna, does what is best, and attains the Supreme Goal. (16.22)

One who acts under the influence of their desires, disobeying Scriptural injunctions, neither attains perfection nor happiness nor the Supreme Goal. (16.23)

Therefore, let Scripture be your authority in determining what should be done and what should not be done. You should perform your duty according to the Scriptural injunctions - these should guide your actions. (16.24)

17: Yoga of the Threefold Faith
Arjuna said: What is the nature of the devotion of those who perform spiritual practices with faith but without following the scriptural injunctions, O Krishna? Is it Sattva, Rajas, or Tamas? (17.01)

The Lord said : The natural faith of embodied beings is of three types: Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. Hear this from Me. (17.02)

O Arjuna, the faith of each is in accordance with one’s own nature or natural disposition. A person is known by the faith they hold to. One can become whatever one wants to be (if one constantly contemplates on the object of desire with faith). (17.03) 212

The Sattva persons worship Deities, the Rajas people worship demigods fashioned to their own desires, and the Tamas persons worship energies and spirits according to their likes. (17.04)

Those who practice severe austerities without following the Scriptures, with hypocrisy and egotism, impelled by lust, and attachment; (17.05)

Senselessly torturing the elements in their body and also Me who dwell within the body; know these ignorant persons to be of demoniacal nature. (17.06)

The food preferred by all is also of three types. So are the sacrifice, humility, and charity. Now hear the distinction between them. (17.07)

The foods that promote longevity, virtue, strength, health, happiness, and joy; are juicy, smooth, substantial, and agreeable to the stomach. Such foods are dear to the Sattva persons. (17.08)

Foods that are bitter, sour, salty, very hot, pungent, dry, and burning; and cause pain, grief, and disease are liked by Rajas persons. (17.09) 213

The foods liked by Tamas persons are half cooked, tasteless, rotten, stale, refuse, and impure. (17.10) 214

Sacrificial Service (Yajna) instructed by the Scriptures, performed with a firm belief that it is a duty, and without the desire for the fruit thereof, is Sattva Service. (17.11)

Sacrificial Service (Yajna) which is performed for show, or aiming for fruit, know that to be Rajas Service, O Arjuna. (17.12)

Sacrificial Service (Yajna) that is performed without following Scripture, in which no food is distributed, which is devoid of mantra, faith, and gift, is said to be Tamas Service. (17.13)

The worship of Deities, of the twice-born, of teacher, and of the wise; purity, honesty, continence, and non-injury; these are said to be the restraint of the body and control of deeds. (17.14) 215

Speech that is causes no excitement, that is truthful, pleasant, beneficial, and is use for the regular reading of Scriptures is called he restraint of word. (17.15) 216

The serenity of mind, gentleness, silence, self-restraint, and the purity of mind are called the restraint of thought. (17.16)

This threefold restraint (of thought, word and deed) practised by yogis with supreme faith, without a desire for the fruit, is said to be Sattva humility. (17.17)

humility that is done for gaining respect, honour, reverence, and for show, is said to be Rajas, unsteady, and impermanent. (17.18)

humility performed without proper understanding, or with self-torture, or for harming others, is declared as Tamas humility. (17.19)

Charity that is given as a matter of duty, to a deserving candidate who gives nothing in return, and at the right place and time, is called Sattva charity. (17.20) 217

Charity that is given willingly, or to get something in return, or looking for some fruit, is called Rajas charity. (17.21)

Charily that is given at a wrong place and time, to unworthy persons, without paying respect or with contempt, is said to be Tamas charity. (17.22)

“AUM TAT SAT” is said to be the threefold name of God. This was the basis of the Scriptures and Selfless Service doctrines of ancient times. (17.23) 218

Therefore, acts of sacrifice, charity, and humility prescribed in the scriptures are always commenced by uttering “AUM” by the knowers of God. (17.24)

Various types of sacrifice, charity and humility are performed by the seekers of ecstatic liberation by uttering “TAT” (or He is all) without seeking a reward. (17.25)

SAT is used in the sense of reality and goodness. The word “SAT” is also used for a favourable act, Arjuna. (17.26)

Faith in sacrifice, charity, and humility is also called SAT. The action for the sake of the Supreme is verily termed as SAT. (17.27)

Whatever is done without faith; whether it is sacrifice, charity, humility, or any other act; is called Asat. it has no value here or hereafter, O Arjuna. (17.28)219

18: Yoga of Liberation through Renunciation

Arjuna said: I wish to know the nature of Sanyasa220 and Tyaga221 and the difference between the two, O Lord Krishna.(18.01)

The Lord said: The sages call Sanyasa the renunciation of selfish work. The wise define Tyagaas the renunciation of attachment to the fruits of all work. (18.02)222
  • Some philosophers say that all work is full of fruits and should be given up, while others say that acts of sacrifice, charity, and humility should not be abandoned. (18.03)
  • O Arjuna, listen to My conclusion about Tyaaga. Tyagais said to be of three types. (18.04)
  • Acts of sacrifice, charity, and humility should not be abandoned, but should be performed, because sacrifice, charity, and humility are the purifiers of the wise. (18.05)
  • Even these (obligatory) work should be performed without attachment to the fruits. This is My definite supreme advice, O Arjuna. (18.06)
  • Renunciation of obligatory work (or duty) is not proper. The abandonment of duty is due to delusion, and is declared to be Tamas Tyaga(18.07)
  • One who abandons duty merely because it is difficult, or because of fear of bodily trouble, does not get the benefits of Tyaga by performing such Rajas Tyaga. (18.08)
  • Obligatory work performed as duty, renouncing attachment to the fruit, is alone regarded as Sattva Tyaga, O Arjuna. (18.09)
  • The relinquisher in Sattva, and with a steady mind, and doubts dispelled, hates not a disagreeable work nor is attached to an agreeable one. (18.10)
  • Human beings cannot completely abstain from action. Therefore, the one who completely renounces the attachment to the fruits of all actions is considered a Tyagi (or renunciant). (18.11)
  • The threefold fruit of actions (karma) – evil, good and mixed – comes to a non-renunciant after death but never to a renunciant.(18.12)
  • Learn from Me, O Arjuna, the five factors in accomplishment of all actions, as described in the Samkya doctrine.(18.13)
  • The physical body, the agent of Cause & Effect, the various instruments or organs, various Pranas (or subtle energy bio-impulses), and the fifth is the presiding deity (or the Jivatman). (18.14)
  • Whatever action, whether right or wrong, one performs by thought, word, and deed; these are its five causes.(18.15)
  • This being the case; the ignorant person who considers himself as the sole agent due to imperfect understanding does not understand. (18.16)
  • The one who is free from the notion of egoism and whose understanding is not befouled – even though he kills these people, he kills not and he is not bound (by the act of killing). (18 .17)
  • Knowledge, the object of knowledge and the knower of knowledge, form the threefold stimulant to action; and the instrument, the object and the agent are the three elements of action.(18.18)
  • Knowledge, action, and actor (or agent) are said to be of three types according to the Guna doctrine. Hear duly about these also. (18.19)
  • Knowledge by which one sees a single Imperishable Reality in all beings, undivided in the divided, such knowledge is considered to be Sattva (18.20)
  • Knowledge by which one sees different entities of various types in all beings, as separate from one another, consider that knowledge to be Rajas. (18.21)
  • Knowledge by which one clings to one single effect (such as the either body or the soul) as if it is the whole, and which is irrational, without rational base, and trivial; such knowledge is declared to be Tamas.(18.22)
  • Obligatory duty performed without likes, dislikes, and attachment by the one who does not desire fruit is said to be Sattva. (18.23)
  • Action performed with ego, with selfish motives, and with much effort; is declared to be Rajas. (18.24)
  • Action that is undertaken because of delusion; disregarding consequences, loss or injury to others, as well as one’s own ability is said to be Tamas action. (18.25)
  • The agent who is free from attachment, is non-egotistic, endowed with resolve and enthusiasm, and unperturbed in success or failure, is called Sattva . (18.26)
  • One who is passionate, desires the fruits of action, who is greedy, cruel, impure, and is affected by joy and sorrow; such an agent is proclaimed to be Rajas. (18.27)
  • Undisciplined, vulgar, stubborn, wicked, malicious, lazy, depressed, or procrastinating; such an agent is called a Tamas agent. (18.28) 
Threefold division of Buddhi
  • Now hear the threefold division of Buddhi (or intellect) and firmness, according to the Gunas, as explained by Me fully and severally, O Arjuna. (18.29)
  • O Arjuna, the intellect by which one understands the path of work and the path of renunciation, right and wrong action, fear and fearlessness, bondage and liberation, that intellect is Sattva. (18.30)
  • The intellect (or Buddhi) that makes a distorted grasp of dharma and adarma, of what ought to be done, and ought not to be done – that, is Rajas, O Arjuna.(18.31)
  • O Arjuna, the intellect which, obscured by ignorance regards adharma as dharma and views all things in a perverted way, that is Tamas intellect. (18.32)
  • Three divisions of resolve (firmness of mind)
  • The unwavering resolve by which, through yoga, one regulates the activities of mind, Prana (or the bio-impulses), and the senses, that resolve is Sattva, O Arjuna.(18.33)
  • But the resolve by which a person craving for the fruits of work, clings to Dharma or righteous deeds, Artha or accumulation of wealth, and Kama of enjoyment of sensual pleasures with great attachment; that resolve, O Arjuna, is Rajas. (18.34)
  • That resolve by which a dull (stupid) person does not give up sleep, fear, grief, despair; and arrogance; that resolve is Tamas, O Arjuna. (18.35)
Three divisions of happiness
  • And now hear from Me, O Arjuna, about the threefold happiness. That happiness in which a person comes to rejoice after long practice and in which one reaches the end of sorrow; (18.36)
  • that happiness, which appears as poison in the beginning but is like nectar in the end, born of the grace of spirit-knowledge and clarifies the intellect; is good or Sattva. (18.37)
  • That happiness which arises from sensual enjoyment of objects, which is like nectar in the beginning but like poison in the end – it is held to be Rajasika. 223 (18.38)
  • That happiness which deludes the self both at the beginning and at the end, and which arises from sleep, sloth and mis-comprehension – that is declared to be Tamas. (18.39)
  • There is no being, either on the earth or in heaven or among the Deities, who is free from these three Gunas of Creative Energy, the material nature. (18.40)
Fourfold division of labour-duty explained
  • The division of labour into the four categories are according to the Gunas; and to each is allotted that according to their natural inherent tendencies (and not only because of the birth they achieved), O Arjuna. (18.41) 224
  • Those who have serenity, self control, humility, purity, patience, honesty, knowledge, spirit-realisation, and belief in God are called (Brahmanas) the Intellectuals. (18.42)
  • Those having the qualities of heroism, vigour, firmness, resourcefulness, not fleeing from battle, charity, and administrative skills are called (Kshatriyas), the Protectors. (18.43)
  • Those who are good in cultivation, cattle rearing, business, trade, and industry are known as (Vaishyas) Social Servants. Those who do service and labour type work are classed as (Shudras) Labourers. (18.44)
  • Devoted to one’s own duty, one attains the highest perfection. How one should engage in one’s own duty (dharma), to attain perfection, you will now hear. (18.45) 225
  • The One from whom all beings originate and by whom all this universe is pervaded; worshipping the One by performing ones natural duty for God, one attains perfection. (18.46) 226
  • Better is one’s own dharma, though imperfectly performed, than the dharma of another, well performed. One who does the duty incurred by one’s own nature incurs no sin (or karmic reaction).(18.47) 227
  • One should not abandon, O Arjuna, the duty to which one is born, even though there is evil in it; because, all undertakings are enfolded by evil, as fire by smoke. 228
  • The person whose mind is always free from attachment, who has subdued the mind and senses, and who is free from desires, attains the supreme perfection of freedom from (the bondage of) Cause & effect through renunciation. (18.49)
  • Learn from Me briefly, O Arjuna, how one who has attained such perfection realizes God, the supreme state of knowledge. (18.50)
  • Endowed with purified intellect, subduing the mind with resolve, turning away from sound and other objects of the senses, giving up likes and dislikes; and (18.51)
  • living in solitude after mastering the gregarious life, eating lightly, controlling the thought, word, and deed; engaged in meditation an contemplation, and taking refuge in dispassion; and (18.52)
  • abandoning egoism, violence, pride, lust, anger, and desire for possession; free from the notion of “my”, and peaceful; one becomes fit for attaining oneness with God. (18.53)
  • Absorbed in God, the serene one neither grieves nor desires; becoming impartial to all beings, one obtains supreme devotion to God. (18.54)
  • By devotion one knows me in truth, what and who I am; the having known Me in essence, one immediately merges into Me. (See also 5.19) (18.55)
  • One attains the eternal imperishable abode by My grace, even while doing all duties, just by taking refuge in Me. (18.56)
  • Mentally offering all actions to Me, be devoted to Me. Resorting to yoga of the intellect, always fix your mind on Me. (18.57)
The harm of egoism
When your mind becomes fixed on Me, you shall overcome all difficulties by My grace. But, if you do not listen to Me due to your ego, you shall perish.(18.58) 229

If due to your ego you think: “I shall not fight”; this resolve of yours is vain. Your own nature will compel you (to fight). (18.59)

Bound by your own karma from before, which now fashions your nature; that which you whish not to do out of ignorance, that you will be compelled to do by your inherent nature, helplessly against your will, O Arjuna. (18.60)

The Lord abides in the heart of all beings, O Arjuna, causing all beings to act (or work out their Cause & Effect) by His power of Illusion as if they are (puppets) mounted on a machine. (18.61)

Seek refuge in the Lord alone with all your heart, O Arjuna. By grace you shall attain supreme peace and the Eternal Abode.(18.62)

Thus the wisdom that is more secret than the secret has been explained to you by Me. After fully reflecting on this, do as you wish. (18.63) 230

Hear again My supreme word, the most secret of all. You are very dear to Me, therefore, I shall tell this for your benefit. (18.64)

Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me, offer service to Me, bow down to Me, and you shall certainly reach Me. I promise you because you are very dear to Me. (18.65)

Setting aside all noble deeds, just surrender completely to the will of God (with firm faith and loving contemplation). I shall liberate you from all sins (or bonds of Cause & Effect). Do not grieve. (18.66)

Who is competent to be taught the Gita?
This (knowledge) : should never be spoken by you to one who is devoid of humility, who is without devotion, who does not desire to listen, or who speak ill of Me (18.67)

The one who shall circulate this supreme mystical philosophy amongst My devotees shall be performing the highest devotional service to Me and shall certainly attain (or come to) Me. (18.68)

No other person shall do a more pleasing service to Me, and no-one on the earth shall be more dear to Me. (18.69)

I shall be worshipped with Jnana-Yajna (selfless service of knowledge sacrifice) by those who shall study this sacred dialogue of ours. This is My promise. (18.70)

Whoever hears this with faith and without pettiness becomes free from sin and attains the higher regions reserved for the righteous of pure actions. (18.71)

O Arjuna, did you listen to this with single-minded attention? Has the delusion born of your ignorance been destroyed? (18.72)

Arjuna said: By Your grace my delusion is destroyed, I have regained my memory, my confusion (with regard to body and spirit) is dispelled, I am firm, and I shall obey Your command.(18.73)

Sanjaya said: Thus I heard this wonderful dialogue between Lord Krishna and the high-souled Arjuna, causing my hair to stand on end. (18.74)

By the grace of teacher Vyasa, I heard this most mystical and supreme yoga directly from Krishna, the Lord of yoga, Himself speaking before my very eyes. (18.75)

O King, as I recall again and again this wonderful and holy dialogue between the Lord and Arjuna I rejoice again and again. (18.76)

And as often as I recall that most wondrous form of the Lord, great is my astonishment, O king, and I rejoice again and again. (18.77)

Wherever the Lord of Yoga is, wherever is Arjuna, the wielder of the bow, there are Happiness, prosperity, victory, growth, and sound policy – this is my conviction  (18.78)

------------------------------------------The End-----------------------------------

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Prof: Koti Madhav Balu Chowdary

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