Book I : Bala Kanda - Book Of Youthful Majesties

Chapter [Sarga] 1
Verses converted to UTF-8: Sept 09


READ PAGE - 2 -  Verse with letter ta an auspicious letter.

तम् व्रजंतम् प्रियो भ्राता लक्ष्मणः अनुजगाम ह |
स्नेहात् विनय संपन्नः सुमित्र आनंद वर्धनः || १-१-२५
भ्रातरम् दयितो भ्रातुः सौभ्रात्रम् अनु दर्शयन् |
25, 26a. vinaya sampannaH = humbleness, abounding; bhraatuH dayitaH = to brother Rama, fondly [to Rama]; priya bhraataa = dear [natural brotherly affection,] brother; lakshmanaH = Lakshmana; sumitra ananda vardhanaH = [his mother] Sumitra's, happiness, duly augmenting; saubhraatram anu darshayan = [ideals of] brotherhood, exemplifying; vrajantam tam bhraataram = who is going, him [Rama,] with brother [Rama]; snehaat anu jagaama ha = heartily, in tow, followed, indeed.
"In whom humbleness and the natural brotherly affection of a brother are abounding, such a fondly younger brother of Rama, namely Lakshmana, indeed heartily followed his forest going brother Rama, exemplifying the ideals of brotherhood, thus augmenting the happiness of his mother Sumitra. [1-1-25, 26a]
रामस्य दयिता भार्या नित्यम् प्राण समा हिता || १-१-२६
जनकस्य कुले जाता देव मायेव निर्मिता |
सर्व लक्षण संपन्ना नारीणाम् उत्तमा वधूः || १-१-२७
सीताप्य अनुगता रामम् शशिनम् रोहिणी यथा |
26b, 27, 28a. raamasya dayitaa bhaarya = Rama', loving, wife; praaNa samaa = life, like, [alter ego]; nityam hitaa = ever, amiable one; jankasya kule jaataa = Janaka's, family, born in; nirmitaa deva maya iva = fashioned, by divine, marvel, as though; sarva lakshaNa sampannaa = all, qualities, possessor of [befitting to an ideal lady]; nariiNaam uttamaa = among ladies, the best one; vadhuu = daughter-in-law [of Dasharatha]; siitha api = Seetha, even;rohiNii shashinam yathaa = Lady Rohini, with Moon, as with; raamam anugataa = Rama, she followed.
"Seetha, the best one among ladies, a possessor of all best qualities befitting to an ideal lady, the one who is as though fashioned by a Divine marvel, born in Janaka's family and became Dasharatha's daughter-in-law, and she who is the loving wife and an ever-amiable alter ego of Rama, even she followed Rama to forests, as with Lady Rohini following the Moon... [1-1-26b, 27, 28a]
Here deva maaya refers to many concepts. Vaishnavaite tenets tell that the word deva is ascribable only to Vishnu, but not to other gods. Thus, this is Vishnu maya, when He assumed an extraordinary female form called Mohini, when distributing amR^ita, the divine elixir, to gods and demons. Next is the form of Tilottama, a divine beauty to hoodwink demons called Sunda and Upasunda. The other is Vishnu's liilaa shakti, which is divinely fascinating. Yet another is grammatical connotation, maa yaa where, maa= Goddess Lakshmi; yaa= who that is; meaning yaa siitaa saa maa= 'who is Goddess Lakshmi... She is Seetha...' and this results in the saying: ati ruupavatii siitaa... ati muurkhaH cha raavaNa 'While Seetha is an extraordinarily beauty, Ravana is an eccentrically stupid...
The deities have their wives always with them. Chandra, the Moon has Rohini, a conspicuous star, while Surya, Sun has Prabha, Sunshine. Minus these wives, their glow and glitter is void. So also, Rama has an inseparable wife. Though Seetha and Lakshmana were not exiled, they followed Rama out of concept of 'togetherness...'
पौरैः अनुगतो दूरम् पित्रा दशरथेन च || १-१-२८
शृन्गिबेर पुरे सूतम् गंगा कूले व्यसर्जयत् |
गुहम् आसाद्य धर्मात्मा निषाद अधिपतिम् प्रियम् || १-१-२९
गुहेअन सहितो रामो लक्ष्मणेन च सीतया |
28b, 29, 30a. [That Rama while going to forests]; pauraiH = by citizens; pitraa dasarathena ca = by father, Dasharatha, also; duuram = for a distance; anu gataH = followed; dharmaatmaa raamaH = virtue-souled, Rama; gangaa kuule = on River Ganga's, bank; sR^iN^giberapure = in [town called] Sringaberapura; nishhaada adhipatim = with tribal, chief; priyam = who likes Rama; guham = Guha; asaadya = on getting at; guhena lakshmaNena siitayaa ca = with Guha, with Lakshmana, with Seetha, also; sahitaH = teamed with; suutam = charioteer [Sumantra]; vyasarjayat = left off.
"The citizens of Ayodhya and even his father Dasharatha have followed that virtue-souled Rama for a distance when he started on his exile. Later Rama reached the tribal chief named Guha, who has a liking for Rama, on the bank of River Ganga in a town called Sringaberapura. And when Rama is teamed with Guha, Lakshmana and Seetha, he left off the charioteer and a minister of his father who charioted them thitherto, namely Sumantra. [1-1-28b, 29, 30a]
Here while saying guhena saH hitaH raamaH can also be cleaved as guhena saH hitaH = saH raamaH guhena hitaH 'he that Rama is sent, or sailed over Ganga by Guha...' apart from the above. The word Sringaberapura means a township where the replicas of stags with sets of antlers are prepared and placed at places in order to attract selfsame stags or deer, and then the tribals can catch those animals. The word Guha means guhaati it guhaH 'one who hordes/steals others' wealth by waylaying etc...' thus, though the tribal chief is a lowly subject by birth and caste-oriented activity, Rama has no aversion for such subjects, because Guha reposes love in Rama. Govindaraja.
ते वनेन वनम् गत्वा नदीः तीर्त्वा बहु उदकाः || १-१-३०
चित्रकूटम् अनुप्राप्य भरद्वाजस्य शासनात् |
रंयम् आवसथम् कृत्वा रममाणा वने त्रयः || १-१-३१
देव गन्धर्व संकाशाः तत्र ते न्यवसन् सुखम् |
30b, 31, 32a. te = they [the trio, Rama, Lakshmana, Seetha]; vanena vanam gatvaa = from forest, to forest, on reaching; bahu udakaan nadiiH tiirtva= with much [plethoric,] waters, rivers, on crossing; anu = later, in consequence; bharadvaajasya shaasanaat = sage Bharadwaja's, by ordainment;chitrakuuTam praapya = Chitrakuta, on arriving at [its hillside]; ramyam avasatham kR^itvaa = handsome, cottage, on setting up; te = such as they are, [who have enjoyed every comfort in Ayodhya]; trayaH = three of them [trio]; tatra = there [at Chitrakuta]; vane ramamaaNaa = in woods, while exuberating; deva gandharva samkaashaaH = gods, celestials, similar to; sukham nyavasan = happily lived.
"That trio of Seetha, Rama and Lakshmana on treading forest after forest, and on crossing rivers with plethoric waters, reached the hermitage of Sage Bharadwaja, and by the ordainment of that sage they arrived at Chitrakuta, and setting up a handsome cottage there, they who have enjoyed every comfort in Ayodhya enjoyed every comfort here also in no less a degree and that trio lived happily and exuberated themselves in woods at Chitrakuta, similar to gods and celestials... [1-1-30b, 31, 32a]
In another way the meaning is: te avane 'they, protecting each other...' te ramamaaNaaH ' those two Rama and Seetha, frolicsomely delighted, enjoyed the essence of forest-faring...' saMkaashaa similar to Vishnu or Narayana's enjoyment of kriiDaa rasa 'the essence of His playful acts...' and Lakshmana enjoyed the essence of his servitude sevaa rasa and where deva = devii ca devaH ca devau 'either goddess or god... it but the Almighty...' gandharva = gaanam dhaarayati iti gandharva - jiivan muktaH salved-soul, thus Lakshmana rejoiced with his singing of saama gaana of Sama Veda....' And they rejoiced without feeling any difference between city dwelling and forest dwelling... as every part of Universe is theirs.
In another way tevane vanam gatvaa 'playfully, to forests, they went...' It is a play for them to enter the forest to resolve the purpose of Ramayana and their incarnations.
चित्रकूटम् गते रामे पुत्र शोक आतुरः तथा || १-१-३२
राजा दशरथः स्वर्गम् जगाम विलपन् सुतम् |
32b, 33a. raame = of Rama; tathaa = thus [tadaa = then]; chitrakuuTam gate = to Chitrakuta, on going; putra shoka aaturaH = for son, by grief, aggrieved; raajaa dasharathaH = King, Dasharatha; sutam vilapam = for son, while grieving; svargam jagaama = heavens, went to.
"On Rama's going to Chitrakuta thus, King Dasharatha is aggrieved by the grief for son and went to heavens grieving for son... [1-1-32b, 33a]
The word 'thus' is according to the text of Govindaraja. Maheshvara Tiirtha's text will have 'then'.
गते तु तस्मिन् भरतो वसिष्ठ प्रमुखैः द्विजैः || १-१-३३
नियुज्यमानो राज्याय न इच्छत् राज्यम् महाबलः |
स जगाम वनम् वीरो राम पाद प्रसादकः || १-१-३४
33b, 34. tasmin gate = his [Dasharatha's,] going [to heavens] - in the matter of Dasharatha's departure to heavens; bharataH tu = Bharata, but;vasiSTha pramukhaiH dvijaiH = by Sage Vasishta, other prominent, by Brahmans; raajyaaya niyujyamaanaH = in kingship, being [impressed on] for investiture; mahaa balaH = highly, mighty [even though, highly efficient to rule such a kingdom]; raajyam na icChat = kingdom, not, desired; viiraH = brave one [but here, a self-denying one]; saH = he [Bharata]; raama paada prasaadakaH = at Rama's feet, mercy, praying for; vanam jagaama = to forests, went.
"On Dasharatha's departure to heavens, though Sage Vashishta and other Brahmans have impressed upon him for his investiture in kingship, and even though he is highly effectual to rule such a kingdom, he that Bharata refused the kingdom, and that self-denying Bharata, for he is aloft the greed, grouse, and gripe, went to forests to pray for mercy at the feet of Rama... [1-1-33b. 34]
गत्वा तु स महात्मानम् रामम् सत्य पराक्रमम् |
अयाचत् भ्रातरम् रामम् आर्य भाव पुरस्कृतः || १-१-३५
त्वम् एव राजा धर्मज्ञ इति रामम् वचः अब्रवीत् |
35, 36a. aarya bhaava puraskR^itaH = by humbleness, by means of, reverential one [his humbleness is reverential or, he is reverential for his humbleness]; mahaa aatmaanam = great, souled one; satya paraakramam = by truthfulness, a vanquisher; raamam = to such Rama; saH gatva = he that Bharata, on going - on reaching; braataram raamam ayaachat = from brother, Rama, begged of; dharma j~naH = knower, of probity; tvam eva = you, alone; raajaa = [are the] king; iti vachaH abraviit = thus, word, said [avowed.]
"But on reaching that great-souled Rama, who is a vanquisher just by his truthfulness, Bharata humbly and reverentially begged of his brother, and the avowed word of Bharata is this, 'oh! Knower of Probity, you alone shall be the king... ' [1-1-35, 36a]
रामोऽपि परमोदारः सुमुखः सुमहायशाः || १-१-३६
न च इच्छत् पितुर् आदेशात् राज्यम् रामो महाबलः |
36b, 37a. raamaH = Rama; api = even though; parama udaaraH = really, benevolent one; su mukhaH api = readily, willing one, even though [but not 'good faced one']; su mahaa yashaH [api] = of very, greatly, reputed [endower,] [even though]; mahaa balaH [api] = highly, capable [in eliminating enemies with a single arrow, or, endower of whatever sought by his adherers,] [even though]; raamaH = Rama; pituH aadeshaat = of father, owing to directives; raajyam = kingdom; na ca icChat = not, also, desired.
"Even though Rama is a really benevolent one, even though he is a readily willing one, even though he is a greatly reputed one for endowments, even though he is a highly capable endower of whatever sought by his adherers, even then Rama did not desire the kingdom, to keep up his own pledge and also owing to his father's directives... [1-1-36b, 37a]
In the compound na ca icChat the 'ca' indicates that though he is disagreeing now, but said to have agreed to take up the kingdom after the period of exile as stipulated in the exilic terms.
पादुके च अस्य राज्याय न्यासम् दत्त्वा पुनः पुनः || १-१-३७
निवर्तयामास ततो भरतम् भरत अग्रजः |
37b, 38a. bharata agra jaH = by Bharata's, elder, born [elder-brother of Bharata, namely Rama]; raajyaaya = for kingdom; asya = to him [to Bharata]; paaduke nyaasam datvaa = sandals, for custodial care, on giving; tataH = then; punaH punaH = again, again [persuasively]; bharatam nivartayaamaasa = Bharata, [Rama] started to turn him away.
"On giving his sandals to that Bharata for custodial care of kingdom till his return after the period of exile, then the elder brother of Bharata, namely Rama, persuasively turned away Bharata. [1-1-37b, 38a]
स कामम् अनवाप्य एव राम पादा उपस्पृशन् || १-१-३८
नन्दि ग्रामे अकरोत् राज्यम् राम आगमन कांक्षया |
38b, 39a. saH = he that Bharata; kaamam an avaapaya eva = desire, not, fulfilled, thus; raama paadau upaspR^ishan = Rama's feet, on touching;raama aagamana kaankshayaa = Rama's, arrival, with an expectation; nandigraame akarot raajyam = from Nandigrama [a village,] carried on, kingdom;
"Unfulfilled is the desire of Bharata in taking back Rama to kingdom, hence on touching Rama's feet and taking sandals, he returned from Chitrakuta, and without ruling from capital Ayodhya, he carried on the kingdom from a village called Nandigrama, with an expectation of Rama's return... [1-1-38b, 39a]
गते तु भरते श्रीमान् सत्य सन्धो जितेन्द्रियः || १-१-३९
रामः तु पुनः आलक्ष्य नागरस्य जनस्य च |
तत्र आगमनम् एकाग्रो दण्डकान् प्रविवेश ह |१-१-४०
39b, 40. bharate gate tu = Bharata, while departed, but; shriimaan = self-effulgent one [Rama whose self-effulgence is not marred by Bharata's arrival or by his incitement for kingdom]; satya sandhaH = truth, bound [for his truthfulness in following father's directives is undeterred even by the supplication of Bharata]; jita indriyaH = conquered, senses [for the lure of kingdom has not conquered his senses]; raamaH tu = Rama, on his part;naagarasya janasya ca = of citizens, of ordinary subjects, also - here the 'ca' indicates Bharata and others who came to Chitrakoota; punaH tatra aagamanam = again, to that place, their arrival; aalakshya = on foreseeing; eka agraH = one, targeted [determinedly, or decidedly]; daNDaka aranyaan = in to Dandaka, forests; pravivesha ha = [he] entered, indeed.
"On the departure of Bharata, that effulgent one, for his self-effulgence is not marred by the arrival of Bharata with an incitement; that truth-bound one, for his truthfulness is undeterred even by the supplications to return to capital by Bharata, Kausalya, and even Kaikeyi; that self-controlled one, for the lure of kingdom has not controlled his senses, such as he is, he that Rama foresaw the repeated arrival of citizens, other subjects, or even Bharata to that place. Hence Rama indeed entered Dandaka forest, determinedly about his plighted promise to undergo exile and decidedly about the elimination of demons... [1-1-39b, 40]
In this compound naagarasya janasya ca the 'ca' is indicative of Bharata, who may make habit of frequenting Chitrakuta, for one reason or the other.
प्रविश्य तु महाअरण्यम् रामो राजीव लोचनः |
विराधम् राक्षसम् हत्वा शरभंगम् ददर्श ह || १-१-४१
सुतीक्ष्णम् च अपि अगस्त्यम् च अगस्त्य भ्रातरम् तथा |
41, 42a. raajiiva lochana raamaH = lotus, eyed one - whose eyes are lotus-like, such Rama; maha aranNyam pravishya tu = vast, forest, on entering, but; viraadham raakshasam hatvaa = Viraadha, demon, having eliminated; sarabhaN^gam sutiikshNam ca api = Sage Sharabhanga, Sage Suteekshna, also, even; agastyam ca = Sage Agastya, also; tathaa = likewise; agastya bhraataram = Agastya's brother dadarsha ha = descried, indeed
"That lotus-eyed Rama on his entering the vast of Dandaka forest eliminated the demon Viraadha, and indeed descried Sage Sharabhanga, also even Sage Suteekhsna, also Sage Agastya and likewise Sage Agastya's brother... [1-1-41, 42a]
The name of Agastya's brother is Sudarshana, and he will never be called by his own name, but will be called as agatsya bhraata, brother of Agastya, a sage in name only and any person hanging on to his brothers or relatives will be nicknamed like this.
अगस्त्य वचनात् च एव जग्राह ऐन्द्रम् शरासनम् || १-१-४२
खड्गम् च परम प्रीतः तूणी च अक्षय सायकौ |
42b, 43a. agastya vachanaat ca eva = by the word - on the advice of, of Agastya, only, thus; aindram sharaasanam = Indra's, great bow; khadgam ca= sword, also; akshaya saayakau = ever replenishing, with arrows; such a; tuuNii ca = quivers, also; parama priitaH = highly, pleased [to receive befitting weaponry]; jagraaha = has taken - from Agastya.
"On the advice of Sage Agastya Rama took a bow of Indra from Sage Agastya, which Indra once gave to Sage Agastya, along with a sword, and two quivers in which arrows will be ever-replenishing, and thus Rama is highly pleased to receive befitting weaponry... [1-1-42b, 42a]
वसतः तस्य रामस्य वने वन चरैः सह || १-१-४३
ऋषयः अभ्यागमन् सर्वे वधाय असुर रक्षसाम् |
43b, 44a. tasya raamasya = his, of Rama; vane = in forest - of Sharabhanga; vasataH = while staying; sarve R^ishayaH = all, sages; vana charai saha= forest, moving humans - hermits, along with; asura rakshasaam vadhaaya = monsters, menacers, for elimination of; abhi aagaman = [sages] towards, approached - Rama.
"While Rama is staying in the forest of Sage Sharabhanga, all the sages and forest moving ascetics, vaanaprashta-s, have approached him for the elimination of monsters and menacers... [1-1-42b, 43a]
स तेषाम् प्रति शुश्राव राक्षसानाम् तथा वने || १-१-४४
प्रतिज्ञातः च रामेण वधः संयति रक्षसाम् |
ऋषीणाम् अग्नि कल्पानाम् दंडकारण्य वासीनाम् || १-१-४५
44b, 45. saH = he that Rama; raakshasaanaam vane = in demon's, forest - an abode of the demons; teSaam = their - of sages; tathaa = that way [saying, supplications of sages]; prati shushraava = in return, on telling them [promised, conceded to]; raameNa ca = by Rama, also; agni kalpaanaam = ritual fire-like, those in glow - sages; daNDaka araNya vaasinaam iSiiNaam = = in Dandaka, forest, dwellers of, to sages; samyati = in combat;raakshasaam = of all demons; vadhaH ca = elimination, also; prati j~naataH = to them, made known - promised by Rama.
"Rama conceded to the supplications of those sages of that forest, which forest has become an abode of demons, and Rama also promised those sages who are the dwellers of Dandaka forest, and whose glow is like that of the Ritual-fire, to eliminate all of the demons in combat... [1-1-44b, 45]
Vividly: 'the sages whose resplendence is like that of Ritual-fire and who are capable of living in that deadly forest only by their calibre of sageship, and who by themselves can eliminate those demons just by their ascetic capability, they wanted some divine medium to undertake that task of elimination, as that so-called divinity alone perpetrated these demons proffering all boons on those demons. And they spotted this Rama, even though he is in a peaceable get-up of a hermit, and as a family man is with his wife. But sages are aware about the real reality of this Rama and requested him alone, because they know why and what for Rama came this far, that too with Seetha. Thus, the sages of Dandaka forest really aid and abet this Rama, the eliminator of demons, and thus they collectively lead Rama and Seetha to the real place of action.'
The word asura is declined as asuuna raati iti asura... asu = life; ra= taker; i.e., life takers - demons, while the word sura is nectar consuming one, the divine. In later chapters of this canto, accounts are given as how these were created and named.
तेन तत्र एव वसता जनस्थान निवासिनी |
विरूपिता शूर्पणखा राक्षसी काम रूपिणी || १-१-४६
46. tatra eva vasataa = there, only, while living; tena = by him [Rama]; kaama ruupiNi = by wish, guise-changer; janasthaana nivaasinii = Janasthaana - a place in Dandaka forest, a resident of; shuurpaNakhaa = Shuurpanakha; raakshsii = demoness; vi ruupitaa = rendered without, shape - she is disfigured.
"While Rama is living there in Dandaka forest, a guise-changing demoness named Shuurpanakha, who is a resident of Janasthaana, a place in Dandaka forest, is disfigured... [1-1-46]
This is metonymy. Rama did not do it himself, but his brother Lakshmana does this act of cutting the nose and ears of this demoness, which is the twisting point of the story. She is so named as Shuurpanakha because her like fingernails are like winnowing fans, shuurpa tulya nakhaa iti shuurpanakha; shuurpa= winnowing fan;tulya = like; nakhaa = fingernails. She is the sister of Ravana, and she is the actual trouble-shooter in the epic.
ततः शूर्पणखा वाक्यात् उद्युक्तान् सर्व राक्षसान् |
खरम् त्रिशिरसम् च एव दूषणम् च एव राक्षसम् || १-१-४७
निजघान रणे रामः तेषाम् च एव पद अनुगान् |
47, 48a. tataH shuurpanakhaa vaakyaat = then, by Shuurpanakha, words [provokes]; udyuktaan sarva raakshasaan = rebellious, all [fourteen,] demons; kharam = Khara; trishirasam ca eva = Trishira, also thus; duuSaNam raakshasam ca eva = Duushana, named demon also, thus; teSaam pada anugaan ca eva = their, foot, followers [henchman-demons of Khara et al] also, thus; raamaH rane nijaghaana = Rama, in a combat, has eliminated.
"Then in a combat Rama eliminated all the fourteen demons who rebelliously came at him in the first round of combat incited by the provokes of Shuurpanakha, and then in second round Rama eliminated demon chiefs called Khara, Trishira, Duushana, who are none but the cousins of Shuurpanakha and Ravana, together with all of their hench-demons... [1-1-47, 48a]
वने तस्मिन् निवसता जनस्थान निवासिनाम् || १-१-४८
रक्षसाम् निहतानि असन् सहस्राणि चतुर् दश |
48b, 49a. tasmin vane nivasataa = in that, forest, during his stay; janasthaana nivaasinaam rakshasaam = Janasthaana, inhabitants, of demons; catur dasha sahasraaNi = fourteen, ten, thousands - fourteen thousand; nihataani asan = eliminated, they have become - demons.
"During his stay in Dandaka forest Rama eliminated fourteen thousand demons in all, who are the inhabitants of that very forest... [1-1-48b, 49a]
ततो ज्ञाति वधम् श्रुत्वा रावणः क्रोध मूर्छितः || १-१-४९
सहायम् वरयामास मारीचम् नाम राक्षसम् |
49b, 50a tataH = then; raavaNaH = Ravana; j~naati vadham shrutvaa = cousins, slaughter of, on hearing; krodha muurChitaH = in anger, convulsed;mariicham naama raakshasam = from Maareecha, named, demon; sahaayam varayaamaasa = help, started to seek.
"Then on hearing the slaughter of his cousins, Ravana is convulsed in anger and sought the help of a demon named Maareecha... [1-1-49b, 50a]
Ravana is the supremo of demons and the main antagonist in this epic. His name is Dashagriiva, meaning that he has ten heads, whereby he can be called Decahedral demon, or a Decahedron, in a fanciful way. This name 'Ravana' obtains from the root ru - shabde raavayati iti raavaNaH 'one who makes people criers by his violent actions...' and it also means vishravasaH apatyam pumaan raavaNaH, vishravaso vishravaNa ravaNau 'the son of one named Vishravasa...' Govindaraja.
वार्यमाणः सुबहुशो मारीचेन स रावणः || १-१-५०
न विरोधो बलवता क्षमो रावण तेन ते |
50b, 51a. saH raavaNaH = he, that Ravana; raavaNa = Oh! Ravana; balavataa = with that formidable person [Rama, for he cannot be defeated by the fourteen thousand clansmen of ours]; tena = with him [with such a Rama]; virodhaH = rivalry; te na kshamaH = to you, not, pardonable; so saying; su bahushaH = very, many times; mariichena = by Maareecha; vaaryamaaNaH = [Ravana is] deterred; [aabhuut = Ravana became - Ravana is deterred.]
"But Maareecha deterred Ravana telling him time and again, 'oh, Ravana, unpardonable will be your rivalry with that formidable Rama, formidable because fourteen thousand clansmen of ours could not triumph over him...' [1-1-50b, 51a]

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Prof: Koti Madhav Balu Chowdary

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